# HSSP Summer 2012 Course Catalog

Arts Computer Science
Engineering Humanities
Mathematics Science
Miscellaneous

This is last year's catalog; it is here only as a sample of the types of courses that are offered. Our courses change each year with what our teachers want to teach. The final Summer 2013 catalog will be posted in mid-June before student registration opens.

Arts

A5956: Art and Experimental Film Closed!
Difficulty: *

Are movies like Avatar experimental films? What exactly is experimental film, and what does art have to do with it? And seriously, why is Yoko Ono still famous?

This course aims to explore experimental film in an arts context. No prior exposure or knowledge of experimental film are required.Just an open mind and enthusiasm for kooky videos and quirky conversation is needed!

A6028: a sketch book project Full!
Difficulty: *

"A picture is worth a thousand words".

This class is an introduction to a utilization of a sketch book. Visual journal is not just some lines on paper. On the other hands, it speaks another language that could be understood across cultures. Artists and designers have been using sketch books for collecting data, improving drawing skills, expressing ideas, developing thoughts, generating conversation and making friends with strangers.

Students will start with learning basic elements in visual communication; dot, line and plane. Students then will explore how to do a data collecting sketches, expressive hand sketches and mind mapping diagrams.

Through exercises in class and small take home assignments, students will develop their own unique sketching style related to their interest and making friends with strangers along the way.

:D

Computer Science

C6016: Introductory Programming Full!
Difficulty: **

A fast-paced introduction to computer programming! We'll be cramming in basic Python and maybe more in only a few weeks. The class is targeted at younger students and beginners in programming.

Prerequisites
No experience with programming

Engineering

E6005: Winning a Losing Game: Interactive Thermo-Fluid Dynamics
Difficulty: ***

Ever been curious about how engines work? How the power you use in your home is generated? If you have, then this is the class for you! We're taking an interactive approach to the often-feared subjects of thermal and fluid dynamics. You'll get an introduction to energy, entropy, the laws of thermodynamics, and basic fluid dynamics. We'll culminate the course with connections to electricity generation, jet engines, and other awesome applications.

Prerequisites
Good algebra knowledge, some basic physics and chemistry would be helpful. Basic calculus will be used but prior experience is not necessary.

E5970: Microbial Chemical Factories (or How to Win Friends and Influence Microbes)
Difficulty: ***

Come learn about synthetic biology, an exciting field that combines engineering with molecular biology. In class, we’ll aim to answer questions like these: How do we harness the power of microbes and proteins so that we can to produce important chemicals like biofuels and pharmaceuticals from renewable resources? How can we assemble existing biological processes in new and useful ways?
To get there, we’ll be looking at everything from recombinant DNA technology to what laundry detergent has in common with pineapple juice (and how that knowledge can be useful). We’ll also do hands-on demos and experiments that you can use later to impress your friends and family.

Prerequisites
A high school biology course is strongly recommended, and some background in chemistry would also be helpful.

E6040: Circuit Theory I
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jamie Chu, Amin Kiani

Are you interested in how circuits work but think its seems too complicated to understand? You are not alone. Take this this introductory course on explain how electrical current flows through a DC circuit. Problems will be solved together in class and supplemented with a few homework per week.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of algebra and a calculator (Scientific calculator is a plus but not required)

E6026: HSSP Toy Lab Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Emily TenCate

Have you always wondered what Legos would be like if they were life-sized? Do you wish Nerf Guns came with motion-sensing technology? Bring your ideas and come build your very own toy at HSSP Toy Lab! Throughout the seven Sundays of HSSP, you'll work with your classmates in teams to imagine and begin to create your very own toy. You'll learn about some basic tools and materials used in mechanical engineering, get a brief introduction to Solidworks and other computational design programs, and most importantly you'll get to build a prototype of your toy idea!

Prerequisites
Imagination!

E6004: Circuit Theory I
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jamie Chu, Amin Kiani

Are you interested in how circuits work but think its seems too complicated to understand? You are not alone. Take this this introductory course on explain how electrical current flows through a DC circuit. Problems will be solved together in class and supplemented with a few homework per week.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of algebra and a calculator (Scientific calculator is a plus but not required)

E6032: Lecture Series: Engineering
Difficulty: *
Teachers:

Come explore different topics in engineering during this lecture series! Lecture Series are HSSP classes that have a new teacher discussing a different topic each week within a specific subject. This year's Lecture Series include Math, Engineering, Ancient History and Mythology, and Biology.

Humanities

H5985: Paris in Cambridge Closed!
Difficulty: ***

Always wished to go to France and learn French while learning about a brand new culture but never go the chance to? Well this summer, I will bring Paris to Cambridge!
The class will cover an overview of French grammar and conversational skills as well as a look at the culture and habits of French speaking countries.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of basic French grammar,spelling and verb tenses.

H5976: The Four F’s of Learning Spanish: Food, Festivals, Fashion, and Films Closed!
Difficulty: **

Open to all students, with or without Spanish language background. This summer course is designed to give middle school and high school students a cultural edge with learning Spanish. As the course title denotes, the emphasis will be in four areas of Spanish culture. There will be certain comparisons with Hispanic American culture as well. Taught in English. The class will be conducted in a mix of short lectures and demonstrations, followed by class, group, or pair discussions and resolutions, mini presentations, interviews, short reports, photo montages, short films, mock festivals and cultural reporting.

Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lee Hershey

Let's Go!

Students are going on a "virtual" road-trip. Within pairs (*depending on the size of class), students will explore a city within the United States, and create an itinerary for the entire class. They will be given a budget and will have to find solutions to meet a certain criteria for the budget.

In addition to the "virtual" road trip, students will be required to read excerpts of American "on the road" literature, as well as taking a look at travel blogs and exploring how this format of writing has influenced the travel writing culture.

The final task for the students will be to keep a short diary of their adventure on the road, as well as a class end-of-term quiz and a presentation to the class of their city and itinerary.

Outcome: Students will learn cultural and historical information about their city; learn how to create a travel itinerary and follow a travel budget; learn how to write a travel blog; and read travel literature or watch excerpts of travel films.

H6039: Paris in Cambridge Closed!
Difficulty: **

Always wished to go to France and learn French while learning about a brand new culture but never go the chance to? Well this summer, I will bring Paris to Cambridge!
The class will cover an overview of French grammar and conversational skills as well as a look at the culture and habits of French speaking countries.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of basic French grammar,spelling and verb tenses.

H6015: World Mythology Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Diana Wu

An introduction to the study of various civilizations as these are revealed in their myths and legends. It is intended to get you started on exploring the realm of the human imagination in history. The focus is on the stories and archetypes as they symbolically express deep cultural values.

We will survey ancient stories about heroes, gods, and the universe – and how these myths have influenced the art, literature, and culture of their respective cultures and the modern world we live in today.

H5977: The Four F’s of Learning French: Food, Festivals, Fashion, and Films Closed!
Difficulty: **

Open to all students, with or without French language background. This summer course is designed to give middle school and high school students a cultural edge with learning French. As the course title denotes, the emphasis will be in four areas of French culture. There will be certain comparisons with American and other Francophone cultures as well. Taught in English. The class will be conducted in a mix of short lectures and demonstrations, followed by class, group, or pair discussions and resolutions, mini presentations, interviews, short reports, photo montages, short films, mock festivals and cultural reporting.

Prerequisites
Two years middle/high school Spanish

H5979: Economic Perspectives
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sheila Lee

In this class, students will learn the basic principles of economics through various interactive simulations, games, and discussions. Microeconomic projects include activities demonstrating the invisible hand at work, marginal returns, and production possibilities. For macroeconomics, we will look at trends around the world and use simulations to understand the importance of trading. This course is designed for students with no economics background.

H5965: Philosophy of the Mind Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Carol Hardick

The science, processes and theories of the brain, consciousness, memory and cognition.Topics range from discussions on mind control and subliminal messages to mind mapping and multiple intelligences

Prerequisites
some neuroscience or cognitive psychology will be helpful, but not required

H6033: Lecture Series: Ancient History and Mythology
Difficulty: *
Teachers:

Come explore the history and mythology of different ancient cultures during this lecture series! Lecture Series are HSSP classes that have a new teacher discussing a different topic each week within a specific subject. This year's Lecture Series include Math, Engineering, Ancient History and Mythology, and Biology.

H5972: Dreams, Dreaming and the Subconscious Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Carol Hardick

The brain is the most complex organism in the universe, and many psychologists have said that dreams are the door to the unconscious. The class is a mix of science and humanities. We will study neuroscience, the architecture of the brain, cognition, memory, consciousness, and the sleeping brain. We will explore the different theories of sleep and consciousness, including where dreams come from and consider the psychology of the dream and the dreamer.

Mathematics

M5971: For the Love of Numbers
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Dylan Yott

I'm sure you've all heard of $$\pi$$, and for a very good reason. $$\pi$$ is an extremely important number that shows up everywhere in mathematics. Similarly, you may have heard of a number called $$e$$ which is (arguably) even important than $$\pi$$! Then there's this crazy number called $$i$$ which satisfies $$i^{2}=-1$$. On their own each of these numbers is spectacular, and they are in fact connected in a very important way by the following formula: $$e^{i\pi}=-1$$. If this doesn't shock you, then I don't know what will!

So $$e$$, $$i$$, and $$\pi$$ are all very special and interesting numbers. However, there are lots of interesting numbers out there that aren't as "exotic" as $$e$$, $$i$$, $$\pi$$. For example, the number $$163$$ has some very remarkable and mysterious properties related to deep areas of number theory!

In this class, we will discuss all sorts of interesting numbers with lots of applications to number theory, and we'll even learn some calculus on the way. It's going to be awesome.

Prerequisites
Algebra 1. If you know Algebra 2 and Trig that would be great, and if you know Calculus, even better, but I won't assume knowledge.

M6031: Lecture Series: Math
Difficulty: *
Teachers:

Come explore different topics in mathematics during this lecture series! Lecture Series are HSSP classes that have a new teacher discussing a different topic each week within a specific subject. This year's Lecture Series include Math, Engineering, Ancient History and Mythology, and Biology.

M6029: Probability, problems, and practicals Closed!
Difficulty: ***

A survey of techniques in probability and statistics with applications to real-world scenarios. Want to know more about the economy and the physical world, and what math can say about it? Want to learn how probability works and you can solve problems with it? Join this class!

Prerequisites
Precalculus, calculus preferred.

M6018: Computability and Complexity
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Gaurav Singh

Can we make a program that can check if a program will stop? How long does it take a program to run? These are some questions that we will answer in this class. We will define a theoretical version of a computer, and see what it can or cannot do, and what it means for an algorithm to be fast.

Prerequisites
A strong background in proof based mathematics. You should be able to write a rigorous proof.

M6019: Fractals, and self similarity in the real world
Difficulty: ***

In this course, we will discuss how patterns appear in the real world(and sometimes how they don't!), ranging from the stock market and music, to how trees grow and a little dip into chaos theory and Brownian motion!

A solid understanding of mathematics is required, but the exact level of depth can vary according to student abilities, and will depend on all enrolled. We will also create fractals using basic coding in Java. This course will range widely in difficulty according to student interest and ability. I intend for it to be open ended, with plenty of graphics and geometric interpretations, but a fun intellectual challenge for all!

Prerequisites
None, all material will be taught. I plan on expecting knowledge of algebra 2 and some basic precalc, but the concepts needed will be explained in class.

M5991: Introduction to Counting and Probability Closed!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Felix Sun

--A first course in combinatorics and probability, designed for students with little or no experience in these subjects.--

Come explore probability and counting with us! Probability lets us model uncertainty; counting lets us ...ummm... count things. Very large, seemingly intractable things. These two subjects are actually interlinked in intricate, fundamental ways.

We'll begin with counting strategies, like combinations and overcounting. We'll then apply counting to calculate probabilities, and develop the basic rules of probability. Depending on interest, we will then cover some more advanced ways to use probability, like conditional probability and expected value.

Our class will be discussion- and problem-based, so be prepared to work on difficult math problems with your classmates. There will be occasional problem sets (homework, in MIT speak) that are optional, but highly rewarding.

Prerequisites
Basic algebra. You need to be comfortable solving equations and manipulating fractions.

M6017: The Geometry Strikes Back Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alex Cole, Stephen Face

Do you like hypercubes? What about great rhombicosidodecahedra? In this class, we'll talk about the best parts of 3 and 4 dimensional geometry. Along the way, we'll play with origami, pipe cleaners, and soap bubbles.

Prerequisites
Be excited to learn and build all the mathss, Don't be a square

M5992: The Matrix Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jacobi Vaughn

This class covers practical applications and theory of matrices, and is essentially an introductory linear algebra class.

M6013: Mathematical Symmetry, Geometric Sculpture, and Office Supplies Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Zachary Abel

Come transform ordinary items into extraordinary geometric sculptures. In this hands-on course we will construct complicated balls with binder clips; room-filling beasts with rubber bands; crazy spheres with slotted cards; and much more. Assembling these geometric creations requires scrutiny of their beautiful mathematical underpinnings, thus allowing us to dive deeply into such geometric topics as polyhedra, symmetry, fractals, and more. Each week introduces a new mathematical topic with a new sculptural medium, so come prepared to learn, think, and build!

Prerequisites
Algebra, Geometry, Hand-Eye Coordination

M5990: Foundations of Mathematics Closed!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Andrew Koche

Learn how and why we study mathematics, starting with the most intuitive assumptions and models. A broad (and proof-based) look at mathematics, starting with logic, set theory, and number systems.

Prerequisites
High school algebra

M5975: Calculus: A Whirlwind Tour Closed!
Difficulty: ***

Want to learn calculus among other really cool mathy things? In this class we will start by introducing calculus and end up discovering a number of exciting things about numbers and mathematics, with far-reaching applications into all branches of mathematics.

Prerequisites
Strong mathematical foundation, ideally taken courses through Algebra II

Science

S5989: The How and Why of Life and the Universe Full!
Difficulty: **

Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue on a sunny day and red at sunset? What black holes, white dwarfs and supernovas are? Or how do we know the sequence of the human genome? Take this class to learn about the mysteries of the universe. Moreover, you will find out HOW scientists made the discoveries that helped us understand some of these mysteries.

S5988: The Psychology and Physics of Music
Difficulty: **

In this course, we will examine both the "hard" and "soft" science of music. From the so-called "Mozart effect" to the deep emotional connection people have with music, we will consider what music means to our brains and try to explore why we experience music the way we do. We will also look at what sound physically is -- how it is generated by various instruments, what physical phenomena your ears actually experience, and how the brain processes that information.

Prerequisites
Students should have familiarity with trigonometric functions to follow physical descriptions of sound waves.

S6027: Intro to PHARxMACY
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Susanna Wong

DRUGS. What are these little pills that are in your medicine cabinet and how do they work?

Come learn about the pharmacy world and what it's like to pursue a career as a pharmacist. Whether you've already decided you want to be a pharmacist or if you just want to dip your feet in to get a feel, this class will give you a basic understanding of what pharmacy is really about. Pharmacists are more than just people who count pills on a tray.

Note: Will touch upon topics such as physiology & pharmacology but not in nitty gritty detail.

Prerequisites
Biology, Chemistry, Anatomy & Physiology, Biochemistry preferred but not required.

S6022: The Equations that Changed the World
Difficulty: **

We will cover the most important fundamental equations that define our understanding of what goes on around us.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of some basic physics.

S6023: Biotechnology in the 21st Century Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Bob Weinberg

Interested in learning more about the basic techniques of modern biotechnology such as DNA-RNA manipulations, DNA recombination, use of plasmids and viruses as vectors to introduce xenogenic DNA into microbial species?

From the basics of biotechnology, we will explore the future potential in medicine and bioengineering. Much of the course will involve molecular biology and molecular genetics, but we will also explore some topics in modern bioengineering such as artificial organs, and improved sensorial prostheses such as artificial hearing and vision devices.

Prerequisites
basic high school course in biology

S5967: Cell Biology Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Tuyen Phung

In this course, students will learn about everything that happens in and/or to the cell, from transport systems to signal transduction pathways to cell cycle regulation and cancer. Students will not only learn the concepts but also how everything was discovered, what scientific questions were asked and what experimental approach was taken to solve the problem.

Prerequisites
High school biology

S5984: History of Medicine Closed!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sasha Targ

Would you like to know more about the ways in which we care for the sick and try to keep healthy? This course will provide a survey of how the practice of medicine has changed over time. We'll also cover both scientific and societal aspects of medicine in the present day, including healthcare economics, the Affordable Care Act, preventive medicine, molecular diagnostics, and the UN Millennium Development goals. Throughout the course, we'll consider what aspects of healthcare continue to remain challenging and discuss new difficulties which have arisen over time as well as the many great improvements.

Brief readings will be assigned. Recommended grade level is 10-12, but motivated 7-9 are welcome to join!

S6038: Selected Topics in Introductory Physics
Difficulty: ***

You've used F = ma before but felt like all you did were some cut-and-dried problems, mostly on mechanics. In this course, we will go beyond plugging and chugging by examining some interesting and challenging examples in introductory physics and by exploring some topics not frequently seen in high school physics courses. Topics include the history of the atom, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, special relativity, and thermodynamics.

Prerequisites
Though the course is self contained, most will find that a working knowledge of kinematics and Newton’s laws will be necessary to keep up with the fast pace of the course.

S6035: Lecture Series: Biology
Difficulty: *
Teachers:

Come explore different topics in biology during this lecture series! Lecture Series are HSSP classes that have a new teacher discussing a different topic each week within a specific subject. This year's Lecture Series include Math, Engineering, Ancient History and Mythology, and Biology.

S6014: Practical Physics Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Eric Nagy

The goal of this course is to understand the physics of everyday devices: alternators, remotes, LED lights, transistors, digital cameras, etc... First, you will learn physics fundamentals and pertinent phenomena. Then a detailed explanation will be given of exactly how each device works.

In addition to the fundamentals, you will learn the details of how some devices operate. For example, not just that there is a circuit, or how current flows within it, but what is the data communication protocol? We will even go into manufacturing processes of many devices.

Understanding these details is what truly makes you stand out, both in school and at a job.

Prerequisites
Students will be expected to have a working knowledge of: Algebra, Trigonometry/Precalc Calculus (differential and integral) are suggested, but not necessary. Basic Calculus concepts will be covered.

S5987: Generally speaking: Relativity Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Dragos Velicanu

Ever wondered what it would look like to travel near the speed of light, orbit around a black hole, or even fall into a black hole? What do space and time really mean and what connection do they have to gravity?

We will talk about some of the core ideas of special relativity like length contraction, time dilation and some thought experiments, apparent paradoxes, and real experiments which show these crazy ideas are in fact true!

We'll also delve into some of the ideas of general relativity along with some thought and real experiments related to this.

Prerequisites
Geometry is required. Highschool physics (not AP) is required.

S6012: Space and Time Full!
Difficulty: ***

Is the passage of time an illusion? Space and time might seem like some of the most fundamental, absolute features of the universe. But the science of the twentieth century reveals a lot about what space and time are truly like--a question that once could only be blindly speculated about by philosophers--and what we have found is that space and time are not as simple as they first seem. We will learn the basic math behind special relativity, and understand seeming paradoxes by replacing the concepts of "space" and "time" with one unified concept of spacetime. Next, we will discuss mysterious implications from quantum mechanics that seem to refute locality in space and causality in time. In between we may talk about general relativity, black holes, wormholes, non-Euclidean geometry, Zeno's paradox, and philosophy.

The math we will include is not so advanced, but if you aren't comfortable with algebra, the Pythagorean Theorem, and sines and cosines, you will have to work very hard to understand the material in this class. We invite students with an urge to explore strange and mind-bending ideas to join us for a journey into space and time!

Prerequisites
A general knowledge of basic physics is helpful for the most enriching experience. Algebra will be expected.

S6008: Sensation and Perception Full!
Difficulty: **

We hardly consciously notice it, but our senses are constantly gathering data about the world we live in. In this class, we will explore the role of the nervous system - including the brain and peripheral nerves - in creating our perceptions. We will also go over basic anatomy and the cognitive processing that takes place to make sense of gathered data.

S5982: Better Living Through Quantum Mechanics
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Tom Alcorn

So you've heard a lot about quantum mechanics. The Uncertainty Principle, Quantum Tunneling, Superposition. Heisenberg, Schroedinger, Dirac. Want to know what all the fuss is about? Take this class.

Here's a cool inequality for you to think about:
$$\Delta x \Delta p \geq \frac{h}{4 \pi}$$
You'll be learning about why you should be worried about quantum mechanics. Did I say worried? I meant TERRIFIED. It's going to be like Silence of the Lambs but instead of Lambs there will be Wavefunctions...

Just kidding, it won't be scary. But it will turn your world upside down. Here are some reasons why we need to get to the bottom of quantum mechanics:
-Einstein helped invent it
-You are a wave (well, more of a ripple really)
-You are also a particle
-Classical physics predicts that you don't exist

That last point should indicate to you that it is wrong. If it doesn't, you're probably a philosopher. Sign up for this class and solve the mysteries of the universe*!

There will be light homework but I will not ask for it to be turned in.

*Admittedly, we won't actually be able to solve them. But thinking about them is still a lot of fun!

Prerequisites
Physics: You should know about things like $$F=m a$$, energy (kinetic and potential), electric charge, electric fields. Calculus: It helps but I will teach around it as much as possible.

S6009: Regenerative Biology Closed!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Stephanie Tsai

Haven't you ever wondered how certain organisms have the natural ability to regenerate, but we don't? Regenerative biology is an exciting field of research that is continually growing! Want to learn more?

In this class, every week, we will go over primary literature and journal articles concerning regeneration in salamanders and newts, planarian flatworms, hydra, zebrafish. We will also take a look into past and current stem cell research papers. I will provide the appropriate background information for the topic, and students will be expected to read the given literature beforehand every week.

Prerequisites
Biology course, preferably AP Bio

S5986: Color Chemistry: An Introduction to Coordination Chemistry
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Arunima Balan

Description: Have you ever wondered why the Statue of Liberty turned green? Or why venous blood is blue-tinted and arterial blood is red? All of these questions can be answered through application of coordination chemistry. We will go into reaction chemistry of transition metal complexes, their electronic and spectroscopic properties, and the molecular orbital theory of bonding.
Be prepared to see a lot of cool colors and compounds! There will be demonstrations!

Prerequisites
One year of high school chemistry is preferred

S5980: True Chemistry
Difficulty: **

Unlike most high school chemistry classes, this class will discuss the true explanations behind a variety of chemical phenomena. Chemistry is not just a random collection of facts that one has to memorize—everything in chemistry does have an explanation, and it is my goal to reveal these explanations and show the true beauty of chemistry. We will start with the basis for all of chemistry, quantum mechanics (don’t worry, no difficult math will be used), and from there we will consider electron configurations (with a special focus on electron configurations of the mysterious d-block elements) and use them to explain some basic principles of reactivity that are exhibited by the elements of the periodic table. We will also discuss basic molecular orbital theory to explain different types of bonding (including metallic bonding). If we have time, we will discuss acid-base and oxidation-reduction chemistry, as well as some thermodynamics (including an explanation of what entropy really is!).

Prerequisites
AP Chemistry or equivalent is recommended, though a year of regular high school chemistry may be enough for talented and interested students. A basic knowledge of physics is also recommended.

Miscellaneous

X6003: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Symmetry
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Isabel Vogt

In this class we will approach one of the fundamental concepts across a variety of disciplines: symmetry. What makes an object symmetrical? How do we understand and classify those symmetries? How does symmetry give us information about conservation laws in physics and bonding in chemistry? Is symmetry desirable evolutionarily, artistically, aesthetically?

We will begin to answer these questions using the language of math - that is group theory. We will explore how symmetries are classified, and what makes two symmetrical objects fundamentally different or the same. Then we will turn to symmetry in chemistry, physics and biology. How are symmetries fundamental to our understanding of physical law as well as the workings of the natural world? We will then take a look at notions of symmetry in art and philosophy. Finally we will return to the important theme of symmetry in math and look at the symmetries present in more abstract "symmetrical objects".

This class is going to be challenging, with a lot of difficult, but rewarding math and science. However, the emphasis will be on a deep understanding and appreciation for the mathematics of symmetry versus a laundry list of theorems and proofs.

Prerequisites
The most important prerequisite is a desire to engage deeply with a wide range of subjects. However, you will also need a strong background in math to at least the level of high school algebra 2, and exposure to chemistry and physics at a high school level at the least.

X6030: Cryptography and Cryptanalysis: Methods and History Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Yixiao Wang

Cryptography has always been a constant war between those with secrets and those who want to expose secrets. It is the study of code making and code breaking. The strength of a cipher and the skill of the cryptanalyst have changed the outcome of many historic events. In this course, we will learn how different ciphers work and the methods used to crack them. We will travel through the history of cryptography from Caesar through WWI and WWII to the modern age. As we study each cipher we will learn how codes have impacted events such as the execution of Mary Queen of Scots and the entrance of the United States into World War I. Each week we will learn how a new cipher works and sometimes even learn how to crack it ourselves. Topics include frequency analysis, the Caesar cipher, the monoalphabetic substitution cipher, the Vigenere cipher, the Enigma, and public key cryptography.

X6021: Intro to Social Media and Professional Networking Closed!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lisa Chau

This course will cover the basics of social media and using those tools to enhance professional networking for college applications and job searches.

I will cover Twitter, Hootsuite, Klout, Facebook, Wordpress and LinkedIn. If there is time, I will also go over Pinterest.

Prerequisites
General computer literacy.

X5951: Knitting For Beginners Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Matilda Sokolov

Have you ever seen an amazing handknit sweater and thought "I wish I could do that"? It turns out it's surprisingly easy. In this class, we will begin with the absolute basics and, through hands-on instruction, discover a whole new world of making your own clothes (and/or dinosaurs). Yarn and needles will be provided, but you are strongly encouraged to bring your own.

X6025: Fun with Cooking! Full!
Difficulty: *

Lasagna, Cheesecake, homemade Pizza. Schnitzel, baked Fish, Truffles. Hungry yet? I sure am! Come learn how to make delicious things!

X5978: Leadership Training Institute (LTI) Full!
Difficulty: *

Welcome to the Leadership Training Institute (LTI). The goal of the Leadership Training Institute is to teach motivated high school students the philosophy behind leadership, the importance of teamwork, and to promote self-reflection and the comprehension of self-identity.
In a world of advancements in technology, globalization, partnerships and interactions amongst nations, severe environmental problems and humanitarian crises, there must be leaders who will build the future. We plan to start with students in the Cambridge and Boston area. Currently, we feel students are engaging in leadership activities for the wrong reasons or do not know how to apply their innate leadership ability because they do not know the foundations of leadership. LTI seeks to enlighten students with the basics of leadership concepts while also engaging them in a supportive mentorship with successful, experienced MIT leaders. Ultimately, our goal is to fulfill and optimally apply their leadership potential.

LTI is proud of our interactive curriculum. Instead of a lecture format, we encourage our students to scream, run, think, reflect and learn in their own way.

X6034: Sprinkler
Difficulty: *
Teachers:

Sprinkler is a series of unrelated classes in lots and lots of topics. Students enrolled in Sprinkler will get to choose from four different, unique topics each week. All classes are one-shot classes, so each week you'll have an entirely new selection to choose from.