# HSSP Summer 2020 Course Catalog

Arts Computer Science
Humanities Mathematics
Science Miscellaneous

Arts

A13993: Visualizing Music: from Solesmes through Fantasia and Beyond Full!
Difficulty: **

In this class, we will ask: "Who creates music?" Answers to this question have evolved as music has become increasingly interactive and the burden of interpretation has moved between musicians, composers, and audiences. We will particularly explore

We will dive into techniques for enhancing and explaining music by means of synchronized video. We will trace a winding history — through Solesmes Abbey, Fischinger’s “Motion Paintings”, the Fantasia films, and MilkDrop — to arrive at and analyze Stephen Malinowski’s work. Along the way, we will create our own animation of music (probably a short except of Bach or Mendelssohn) according to our tastes as a classroom.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
The more you enjoy classical music, the more you will get out of this course. Reading sheet music is not a prerequisite. We will also write computer programs as a group in class. No student will ever have to know how to program, but those who have some programming experience will be able to follow our demonstrations more deeply. We will examine lots of audio and **potentially-flashing** video. This course will offer much to those who are colorblind but not blind.

A14094: Untitled (Art Making in Isolation) Full!
Difficulty: *

Quarantine should not stop you from being creative! In this class, we aim to teach basic art skills that are applicable to a wide range of fields. We will share fundamentals of drawing and design through both hands-on and digital activities. We will focus on life drawing such as portraits and figure drawing while observing (virtual) streets and one another. But that is not it! We will also be sharing quick fun facts about the brain works to process art. Note that this is an introductory art course for those with little to no prior experience. We will later be using GIMP as our free digital art program.

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
Students only need to have laptops/computers where they can download GIMP - a free art porgram.

A14042: How to Stay Awake in a Classical Music Concert Full!
Difficulty: *

Classical music is decades old. Why do people still study and play it? This fun and interactive introductory class will tour the lives of famous classical music composers, both men and women, as well as modern performers. We will discuss various instruments, cover basic chord progressions, and uncover classical influences on pop music (Beatles, Elvis Presley, Little Mix, & more!)

YouTube videos. Movie excerpts. Weird facts. Learn how to appreciate classical music so you don't fall asleep the next time you attend a concert.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
No previous experience with music required. Just an interest / curiosity for exploring & listening to classical music

Computer Science

C14067: Intro to WebDev; Do you want to create a website to call your own while learning how to code? Full!
Difficulty: **

Introduction to Website Development will be all about coding, creating, and curiosity! What does it take to code and create a website? How do you want to format? What content do you want to display on your website? We will go through the process of coding and deploying a personal website. Each student will code and create their own site to post their personal projects and showcase their personality. At the end of the course, students will have created a website to call their own.

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
No coding background required! We will go through everything from basics to content creation. This course is highly recommended for beginners with little to no experience in coding and those wanting to build their own personal website!

C14008: Introduction to being a Code Ninja with Julia
Difficulty: **

Come learn the Julia language with some college computer science students! Julia is a modern programming language with intuitive Python-like syntax, speeds that rival C and C++, and some neat tricks taken from other languages.
We'll be approaching Julia from a beginner's standpoint, so don't worry if you aren't an experienced programmer. We'll also be looking at how to solve some Project Euler (projecteuler.net) problems neatly using Julia.

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
This class will be more enjoyable if you're familiar with another programming language. We'll especially try and make the transition easy from Java and Python, if that's what you've done before.

C14015: Introduction to Programming with R Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Mikayla Murphy

R is one of the most highly used programming languages in data science. It rates alongside Python and JAVA as being one of the most widely taught computer programming courses for beginning students. This course will teach how to do basic data manipulations such as creating matrices, vectors and other data structures. Students will also learn to do basic data operations such as doing addition, multiplication of datasets, correlations and also creating data plots to visualize the data

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of algebra

C14080: Game Design and Development with Minecraft and Java Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Darren Lim, Sandra Tang

Learn the essentials of game design and apply that knowledge by creating Minecraft plugins (read: minigames like SkyBlock and other cool features) through the Java programming language! Discover how popular servers keep players hooked and learn programming skills needed to make sheeps explode on contact; the sky’s the limit! No knowledge of Minecraft plugin development required; just come with a copy of Minecraft Java Edition, basic Java programming skills, and creativity!

NOTE: This is a very fast-paced class that will go over a lot of material fairly quickly. You will be expected to be able to work and communicate in small teams, and you will be creating basic Java plugins by the end of essentially every class. If this sounds like too much work, this class might not be for you. Otherwise, welcome and we look forward to hearing all the creative ideas you come up with and playing a lot of fun games together!

We strongly encourage underrepresented groups (e.g. females) to apply!

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
Students should have a copy of Minecraft Java Edition (NOT Educational/Bedrock Edition; if you don't have a copy of Java Edition, email us and we can help you out!) and at least basic programming experience in Java (object-oriented experience encouraged i.e. superclasses, subclasses, instances, static, etc).

Humanities

H14032: Cultural Relics and Chinese History Full!
Difficulty: **

Do you know the Terracotta Army? Are you interested in the history behind the Great Wall of China? Let's divide into the stories and histories behind mysterious Chinese cultural relics.

Class Style
Seminar

H14115: World Languages and Language Puzzles Full!
Difficulty: ***

How can you learn languages without any formal lessons? In this class, we will do exactly that, exploring some of the most widely spoken languages from around the world: Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, French, German, Hausa, Hindi/Urdu, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese, and Yoruba!

You will learn how to take sentences in a foreign language and translate them without initially knowing any of the words, read words in a writing system you don't know, and discover grammar rules that we don't have in English. No prior knowledge of languages is required — just analytical thinking!

A quick example of the type of puzzle we might do: Yaqui is a language indigenous to North America. Here are some sentences in Yaqui:
1. Inepo enchi aniak
2. Aapo enchi vichak
3. Inepo enchi vichak
4. Empo nee aniak

Here are their English translations, in random order:
a. He saw you
b. I saw you
c. You helped me
d. I helped you

Match each sentence with its correct English translation. (Hint: the words don't go in the same order in Yaqui!)

ɔ 'q 'ɐ 'p :sɹǝʍsu∀

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
It is recommended (but not required) that you have experience with at least one foreign language.

Difficulty: **
Teachers: Anson Berns, Laura Cui

Have you ever wondered if there's any truth to time travel in scifi? or just struggled to wrap your mind around how big infinity really is? Come talk about all of these and more!

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Nothing, just come prepared to discuss some mind-bending stuff

H14001: From Pages to the Screen: Can Books Successfully become Films?
Difficulty: **

From the critically acclaimed Harry Potter series to the chick-flick After movie, is it possible to have a book become a great movie?  Or vice-versa? In this course, we will explore different paper-based writings that make it on screen.
Text styles and videos will be determined by class choice depending on what age range we have!

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites

Difficulty: *
Teachers: Stirling Newberry

You do not care about the story your teacher has you reading. Admit it. You care about your own novel. But where to start? One way, though certainly not the one, is to join a “workshop” and read your writing to offer would novelists and listen to their critique. Now you do not have to listen to them, because they could be be wrong, but gives you some idea as to the words you have on the page and the resonance of the words have when rearranged in some fashion.

So here is the deal: I will give you some hints as to what tends to work and you will bring a story and willing to listen to other people read theirs. This is because the only way to really get to grips with your story is to listen to others critique it. It is painful. It is also rewarding in that you will get perspectives as to what you have done well, and what you need to work on. Because, as Hemingway puts it, every first draft is c**p. But you have to do it because then you can improve upon it, and that is from Neil Gamen.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
None

H14111: The Echo in the Forest: Literary Translation
Difficulty: **

Whether it was Antigone, The Cherry Orchard, or One Hundred Years of Solitude, you've probably studied at least one text in translation before. How close was that translation to the original? What kind of writers are translators, and what do they do in practice? Is a translation a creative work of its own, or simply a reproduction of someone else's text? In this course, we'll examine these questions and more through a combination of readings in basic translation theory and exercises in literary translation. You don't need to know an additional language to take this course, so don't worry! Instead, we might compare translations of the same text and discuss their differences, "reconstruct" an original text by combining translated versions, or experiment with translating in other media, like visual art or theatre. If you do know multiple languages and are interested in translating, however, there will be opportunities for you to translate texts and share your work as well.

Class Style
Seminar

H14068: Searching for Minds, Metaphysically: Introduction to Philosophy of Consciousness Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Zoe Lee

In this class, we will contemplate the nature of what seems, at first glance, obvious to us-- the mind! Although we hardly ever question the existence of our and others' minds in everyday life, proving this seemingly undeniable fact has perplexed philosophers and scientists for centuries. And it still does! As the term 'artificial intelligence', or 'AI', has become ubiquitous in movies, TV shows, and the news over the past few decades, deciding for ourselves (or better, as a community) what counts as having a mind and what doesn't seems increasingly important. (Think Westworld and some Black Mirror episodes, self-driving cars, AlphaGo, ...)

This class aims to introduce the elementary philosophical (and time permitting, some neuroscience and computer science) groundwork and tools with which you can begin to analytically evaluate various instances of alleged "minds", including our own, our friends', our pets', and our trusty Roomba's. (Roombas most likely don't have a mind. A better example: Samantha from the movie Her.)

We will tackle this task by addressing the following questions each week:
1. What is consciousness? Am I conscious?
2. Is (my human friend) Amy conscious?
3. Is (my dog) Fido conscious?
4. Is (the robot) Sophia conscious?
5. Is (my digital clone) ME 2.0 conscious?

The last week will be reserved for discussing real-life and sci-fi examples, applications, and remaining questions.

(See also S14132: Searching for Minds, Empirically: Introduction to Neuroscience of Consciousness, for a class on the what scientists are doing to find consciousness in the brain!)

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Consider this class an introductory Philosophy of Mind class, with occasional science and tech sprinkles. This course will run heavily based on discussions as a class, so your participation will be very important, as in any philosophical discourse! Be prepared to engage in constructive and respectful discussions. Since this will be an online class, you can also voice your opinions via typed chat (as opposed to verbal) if you feel more comfortable that way!

H14064: Intro to Elementary Arabic 101
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aysar Abdelgelil

Have you ever thought twice about your pronunciation of common foods such as "falafel", "hummus", and even (the all-intimidating) "baba ghanoush"? Here's the class for you! In this class we will review the basic alphabet, words, and cultural greetings used in modern standard Arabic—by the end, you'll even be able to say the names of all your favorite foods as they were meant to be said!

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
Enthusiasm!

H14002: Women & Gender: The Modern Middle East
Difficulty: **

In this course, we will explore how women & LGBTQI+ members either from or have an association with the Middle East are portrayed. Different mediums that will be used are images, tweets, short stories and short videos. Outside exploration and research is encouraged, but not necessary. Class is seminar/discussion based.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Some familiarity with the Middle East is encouraged, but not required.

H14003: Intro to Marxism
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Julian Hernandez

In 1867, socialist revolutionary Karl Marx published the first volume of what would become Das Kapital; a foundational text in politics, economics, and philosophy that would have a drastic effect on history in the next century and become the most cited book in the social sciences published before 1950.

But what were Marx's real problems with capitalism? Do his warnings still hold water, or have they lost their relevance in the post-Cold War era? And what the heck is "historical materialism" anyways?

Join us as we analyze the main principles of Marxism in our classless HSSP class!

Class Style
Lecture

H14128: Weird Fiction
Difficulty: **

The science fiction and horror genres are a major part of contemporary English-speaking culture, but where did they come from? This course will attempt to answer that question, as we take a deep dive into British and American writings on the fantastical and the terrible through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, often referred to collectively as "weird fiction." We'll start with Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein," frequently described as the first science fiction novel; and we'll end with the works of H.P. Lovecraft, the so-called "father of American horror." Along the way, we'll examine the influence of socio-political, economic, and historical developments on these texts, as well as the contributions to genre fiction of the more "literary" movements of modernism, decadence, and Romanticism.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
None

H14079: James Madison on the Founding of the United States
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Bil Lewis

With the assistance of audience members reading appropriate dramatic
quotations from Patrick Henry, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Dolly Madison, etc., he will lead investigations into events from the House of Burgesses, the Constitutional Convention, the “Dinner Party,” etc., that marked the coming of age of the United States.
More than a mere recitation of dates and facts, this will be an exploration the underlying reasons that prompted them to act as they did. Many of the issues they confronted then continue to be relevant today.
• Should we be one Country?
• What debts should be paid?
• Who gets the power of Taxation?
• Should a Private Bank issue money?
• Should we be agrarian? Or a center
of manufacturing?
• How do we limit the influence of Great Corporations on our public life?
• How can we protect the Common Man from the rapaciousness of the Rich and Powerful?
• How do we eliminate Slavery? • How do we make real the
“Spirit of ’76?” So we can truly say that “All Men are Created Equal.”

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
There are no specific prerequisites. A general idea of period is all that is needed. 14-18 years olds will get the most from the class, but even younger students would be able to follow it. They just wouldn't get the nuances of Money, Taxation, etc.

H14006: Intro to Science Writing
Difficulty: **

How can you tell good journalism from bad? Why is science journalism even important? What role does ethics play in science reporting? This course will cover the hows and whats of science writing, including how is communicated with the public and what makes it effective.

Class Style
Seminar

H14048: Intro to the Arabic Alphabet Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Hasan Khan

Are you entering college in the fall and planning to take Arabic? Do you play Call of Duty or other games that partially take place in Middle Eastern countries? Are you just so BORED at home that you started to think, "Hey! I should learn a language script that I have absolutely no experience in!"?

Well, you're in luck! This intermediate (aka 2 years of experience) Arabic student will be going over the basic script, pronunciation, and some introductory conversation skills and vocab! Class will be taught in Modern Standard Arabic/Fusha (Classical). If you have ANY experience, be warned that this class is for very early Arabic learners (ie you will be bored).

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
A lack of knowledge of the Arabic script so that we all start at the same place

H14120: What is Love? (Baby Don't Hurt Me) Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Kevin Sompel

This course focuses on love and relationships. Using social psychology it delves into questions such as "What causes attraction?", "How can we explain and improve our relationships?", and "How can we define love?". The course has many interactive activities where participants can learn about their own lives and relationships!

Class Style
Lecture

H14101: Human Behavior
Difficulty: *

Did you know that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when other people are present? Or that a mass shooting in the United States is followed by other mass shootings due to the copycat phenomenon? This course will explain human behavior with psychological phenomena such as the bystander effect and mass hysteria. We will also look at historical examples such as the Salem Witch Trials and discuss infamous behavioral experiments such as the Stanford Prison Experiment and the Milgram Experiment.

Class Style
Discussion

H14058: Make Your Own Language: Linguistics and Conlanging Full!
Difficulty: **

Have you ever wanted to design and build a language of your own? This class will cover the basic process of turning your idea for a constructed language (or conlang) into something with a real grammar and vocabulary. We'll also be looking into some of the linguistic concepts underlying languages. As part of the course, you'll make your own conlang!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Come in with ideas about what you would like to include in your very own language

H14129: Roman Historical Epic
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: El Hudson

This course will be a very broad overview of the genre of Roman historical epic: that is, epic that concerns itself with the story of the Roman past. We'll read selections in Latin from Ennius's Annales, Vergil's Aeneid, Ovid's Fasti and Metamorphoses, and Lucan's Pharsalia, complemented with English readings from various other ancient sources. Special attention will be paid to the problems of genre, the influence of actual Roman history on our texts, and in-detail analysis of the Latin. About half the class time will be devoted to translation, and the other half to discussion.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites

H14110: U.S. State & Local Government Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Cody Baynori

Our state and local governments play a key role in governing American society, even though they are commonly left out of political discussion. These “lower” levels of government can actually be extremely powerful given that every power not held by the federal government is left to be divided by the states and the people. In this course, students will learn about everything from the importance of a local school board, to the powers of a governor, and even how you might get involved with the level of government closest to you.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Some preexisting knowledge of the federal government will be assumed. While this is mainly a lecture course, a bit of discussion will be expected.

H14035: 'When is a war not a war?' The Cold War
Difficulty: **

The Cold War is a fascinating conflict in history, partially because it was never really a proper war. Join us to trace the conflict that ensued between the United States and the Soviet Union for a great part of the 20th century, from the origins of the Cold War through to what led to its end - and we'll attempt to cover some of the more confusing elements of the story along the way!

Class Style
Seminar

H13987: Blood and Honor: Deconstructing the Warrior in East Asian Cinema
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jennifer Yoo

From Kurosawa Akira (Seven Samurai, Ran) to Zhang Yimou (Hero, House of Flying Daggers), directors in Japanese, Chinese (Mainland and Hong Kong), and Korean cinema have been telling the story of the warrior for decades. From the classics to the latest groundbreaking films and trends in cinema, find out all you need to know about this truly unique and essential genre of East Asian cinema.

In this class, students will be presented a comprehensive guide to one of the largest genres in East Asian cinema. As a huge film enthusiast, I aim to provide a strong introduction for beginners but also expose more experienced viewers to lesser known (but equally important) films.

No external viewing/renting/purchasing of films will be assigned/required to take this class. All necessary video clips of films will be shown, examined and discussed within class meetings.

Please note: Video clips shown in class may contain some violence.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
No previous knowledge or experience required, but some familiarity with East Asian martial arts films is recommended.

H14030: Cancer and Community
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ayush Thacker

We study a lot about how cancer works biologically, but have you ever thought about the social and cultural aspects of cancer development? How do you help your loved ones who are going through the illness?

Learn about the development of cancer from diagnosis to treatment and investigate how interpersonal and societal relationships develop cancer treatment. We will be investigating the science, sociology and the anthropology of cancer all in one class! This class will go over the most difficult questions in the analysis of individual and collective experience, and of the dynamic relationship between nature and society.
NOTE: This is a sociology based cancer overview, not a biological analysis.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
None

H14123: Global Health
Difficulty: **

Join GlobeMed at MIT for a class on public and global health! Learn about world response to COVID-19 and what measures can be truly useful. Participate in a mini global health hackathon at the end of the six weeks and use the skills you've learned to solve global health issues!

Class Style
Discussion

H14012: History of 20th Century Science Full!
Difficulty: *

The twentieth century was pretty crazy. Massive wars in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East; decolonization and the end of an old world order; the rise of the global economy, modern finance, and widespread inequality... and also groundbreaking scientific discoveries and technological innovation. From quantum mechanics to modern vaccines, from artificial intelligence to the space race, we'll investigate some of these developments and their profound impact on our world today.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
None! An interest in history and science.

H14122: Ancient Greece from the Dark Ages to Roman Conquest
Difficulty: **

This is a lecture based course Every lecture will be one chapter in the epic story that is Greek History.

The six lectures:

1. Mythical Greece, the Bronze Age Collapse and the re-birth of Greece.
2. Origins of Ancient Sparta and Athens
3. The Persian Wars
4. Sparta vs. Athens: The Peloponnesian War
5. The Hegemony Wars
6. Rise and fall of Alexander and 150 more years of war.

Class Style
Lecture

H14130: Satyrs and Mantises: The Gothic and the Queer Full!
Difficulty: **

Gothic literature has, since its inception, been a genre of complicated, subversive, and difficult desire, one that represents queer and trans experience through metaphors of haunting, monstrosity, and uneasy otherness. In this course, we will examine Gothic literature as a repository of queer history, uncovering narratives of queer existence and its particular anxieties and intimacies in tales of vampires, lingering ghosts, and metamorphoses into animals. We'll move from the late Victorian origins of the Gothic, with fiction by Oscar Wilde and Arthur Machen, to the early twentieth-century queer women's Gothic of Daphne du Maurier and Shirley Jackson, and ultimately arrive at a contemporary, explicitly queer Gothic founded in speculative fiction, like the short stories of Carmen Maria Machado and Daisy Johnson. China Miéville wrote, "History can be written of monsters, and in them" -- join us and discover whose history monsters have been writing all along.

Class Style
Seminar

H14082: Music Journalism: Ways of Listening and Writing About Music
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Young Lee, Suhas Sastry

In this course, we will discuss and practice music journalism, a field that lies at the confluence of media criticism, creative writing/nonfiction, and journalism. How can one write persuasively and convincingly about whether a song or album is good or bad? What does it mean to criticize music, an art form that seems, on the whole, very subjective? Why might we want to do that? We will tackle these questions from the modern perspective of music journalism, which often requires complex understandings of music culture and pop culture as a whole.

Besides discussing the philosophical underpinnings of music journalism, we will also engage in music journalism ourselves by listening to new music and writing robust reviews and criticism. How does a modern music journalist discover new music and artists? How should one write about rising artists? How can one engage seriously with the music they listen to every day in a critical manner? We’ll answer these questions and more.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
A willingness to listen to lots of new music - no particular prior knowledge about music required! Content warning: some of the music covered in this course may involve graphic themes. This course will be more difficult than you might expect for a class essentially about writing about your favorite music. We will be asking you to think deeply about rock and pop music in ways that you might have only thought applied to books, poems, and other literature.

H14019: Why We Learn Foreign Languages
Difficulty: ***

In almost every school across the country, learning a foreign language is a requirement for graduation. But why? In this class, we will be exploring how culture and our current political and economic climate converge in hopes of providing a deeper insight into The Other. Each week we will explore a dead or living language to better understand our neighbors and the world we live in.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
This class has readings from academic journals or from larger scholarly works that some students (especially 7th and 8th graders) may have trouble with, but we will be annotating all readings to aid your comprehension.

H14061: Alohomora: Unlocking the Secrets of Harry Potter
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Nelson Niu

Ever wondered why you couldn't just read Harry Potter in your English classes? So have I!

Let's change that.

We'll read and discuss excerpts from the books, unearthing what it is they try to say about love and life, bravery and sacrifice, politics and death. For any aspiring creative writers out there, we'll also investigate the narrative techniques, like humor and plot twists, that make the series so boundlessly captivating.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
You should have read and be familiar with all seven books in the Harry Potter series.

H14034: The Basics of European Politics Full!
Difficulty: **

European politics often finds itself in the news. From Brexit to Marine Le Pen, it's sometimes incredibly confusing to keep up with - even for those in Europe! We'll try and make sense of some of the basic concepts together, from the structure and role of the European Union to the role of individual nations and (maybe) understanding why the UK voted the way it did in 2016. Whether you're politics mad or just want to understand the news a little more, join us to make sense of Europe a little more.

Class Style
Seminar

H14089: Introduction to Art History Full!
Difficulty: **

Introduction to Art History will take high school students (grades 8-13) on an abridged, but exciting journey through the vast subject of the history of Art. The course will cover important themes, figures, and periods (ie. Renaissance, Picasso, Impressionism, Humans v. Nature). The goals for this course are to provide students with the skills to make formal visual analyses and encourage them to implement cultural and historical contexts when forming an opinion on a work of art. This course will be discussion-based, centered around a case study each lesson, and include various activities for the students to explore ideas on their own and with each other. Note: this course will not be comprehensive of Art History in any capacity; there’s simply not enough time. Instead, it will allow students the opportunity to scratch the surface of the subject, and hopefully come away from it with a newfound appreciation for Art.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
You should register for this class if you enjoy museums, are curious about famous works of art (like the Mona Lisa), or want to learn more about how to analyze art!

H14056: Introduction to Climate Justice Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: River Hayes

As environmental threats become harsher and more complex around the globe, it remains clear that certain communities are disproportionately affected by them. Inequalities can be seen in the causes of environmental issues, the impacts of those issues, and the policies put in place to respond to them. This course will explore the effects of these injustices, the reasons behind their existence and persistence, and the measures we can take to combat them. We will examine these facets through an analysis of various movements, from environmentalism to denialism, and will also touch on their relation to the current pandemic.

This class will be partly lecture-based and partly discussion-based. Discussions on this subject will be enriched by students with a diverse range of interests, and no previous experience on this subject is required – just curiosity and an open mind!

Class Style
Lecture

H14102: Abnormal Psychology
Difficulty: **

This course will be an introduction to understanding the nature, causes, and treatment of different mental disorders. Students will gain an insight into the way disorders are defined in the DSM-5, including but not limited to PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bipolar disorder.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
A background in introduction to psychology would be helpful in understanding some of the theories of the causes of mental disorders and treatments but is certainly NOT required!

H14108: Introduction to Navigating the Courtroom: Hands on Learning For Future Pre-Law students
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Shreya Chimpiri

From investigating the minutiae of important Supreme Court cases, participating in engaging simulations about everything from negotiation to jury pools, and discussing prominent legal issues that are on the docket right now, you’ll be presented with new and challenging situations every week that you’ll have to navigate with your fellow classmates. Think you have what it takes to be the next big lawyer?

Class Style
Discussion

Mathematics

M14024: Bayes, Bays, and Bacteria: Bayesian Pattern Discovery in Biological Systems
Difficulty: **

How can we use math to discover patterns in nature? Why might some patterns be difficult to decode, while others are more obvious? You may have learned about Bayes' Theorem in a high school statistics course. It turns out that this theorem has inspired (and largely enabled) a whole subfield of mathematics and statistics: Bayesian Analysis. In this course, we’ll go through the basics of Bayesian Analysis, an increasingly popular framework used in scientific research and as an underpinning for machine learning. We will demystify the relatively intuitive idea behind Bayesian Analysis, which will equip you for college courses in math and computer science. The fun part, though, will be diving into application areas in biology, including bacterial genetics and habitat modeling. Students of this course will gain solid mathematical skills while trying your hand at the wide world of mathematical biology.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Mathematics up to algebra 1

M14072: Elliptic Curves, Complex Tori, and Fermat's Last Theorem
Difficulty: ****

Elliptic curves are a class of cubic curves (defined by a cubic polynomial in two variables) with deeply surprising and beautiful properties. The most surprising fact about elliptic curves is that their points naturally form an additive structure under some geometric operation. Elliptic curves show up everywhere in mathematics from tori defined over the complex numbers to generating abelian extensions of number fields. Elliptic curves also feature prominently in the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, one of the Millenium prize problems, and Andrew Wiles' proof of Fermat's last theorem. In this class, we will develop some fundamental results about elliptic curves such as Weierstrass function theory, the group law, and modular forms before diving head-first into some more advanced territory mentioned above. This class will be a meandering relentless rollercoaster through some of the most beautiful connections in modern mathematics rather than a reasonably-paced, well-structured, and rigorous development of a topic. Expect proofs to be "sketched", definitions to be hand waved, and lots of inane terminology to be used. That said, expect to come away with a broader awareness of open problems in mathematics, a much richer appreciation of the interplay between geometry and algebra, and a healthy respect for cubic polynomials in two variables.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
This class is meant to expose students to a beautiful subject usually relegated to university. As such, it will require some techniques over the heads of most high-school students. However, don't fear; I will try to tailor the class to the experience of the students. It turns out there is plenty of interesting things to find out about elliptic curves using only high-school level mathematics. That said, there is some ABSOLUTELY essential prerequisite knowledge: familiarity with polynomial equations and complex numbers is essential. It would also be helpful to be comfortable with polynomials in two variables (think equations for conic sections e.g. hyperbolas and ellipses and how you can manipulate them). The techniques used to study elliptic curves are usually divided into two areas: algebraic geometry and complex analysis. I have decided to focus on the complex analytic side because I think it is more accessible given the highschool curriculum. Therefore, complex analysis will be the bread and butter of this course. Although I most certainly do not expect you to be experienced in complex analysis, some exposure to calculus will be very helpful. Knowing what limits, derivatives, and integrals are is enough. If you have taken/are taking high-school calculus you will be fine. Most importantly, be prepared to absorb a lot of abstract ideas and to get drenched in a flood of mathematics.

M14085: A Construction of the Numbers
Difficulty: **

Whether you are counting the number of apples you have in your basket or measuring the properties of subatomic particles at CERN, numbers pervade your life in some way or another. But what is a number anyway? What do we really refer to when we say “$$4$$”? What about “$$\frac{2}{3}$$”, “$$\sqrt 2$$”, and “$$\pi$$”?

In this course we rigorously construct the systems of numbers that we have come to take for granted. We begin from the most basic structures in mathematics, sets, and systematically construct the natural, rational, and real numbers, using techniques from different areas of mathematics. Along the way, we explore some of the fascinating properties of these number systems that have given rise to whole new fields in modern mathematics. Join us in building mathematics from the ground up!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
While there are no specific mathematical prerequisites, you should be comfortable dealing with equations and symbols. High school algebra should give you this level of comfort. Basic calculus might be helpful for some parts, but is not necessary

M14087: Introduction to Linear Algebra
Difficulty: ***

In this class, we'll learn about the fascinating world of vector spaces via a little something mathematicians like to call "linear algebra." We'll play around with matrices, dabble in some real world applications, and also prove a few theorems along the way.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Algebra II, or an equivalently strong algebra background, is most likely necessary to enjoy this class.

M14093: Competition Math for Middle School Full!
Difficulty: ***

Ever wonder how many different rectangles can be formed by tracing the lines of a standard chessboard? Or the fastest way to find if a number is a perfect square and/or a perfect number? Are you interested in challenging math not typically taught in the standard classroom? Based on J.Batterson's book, Competition Math for Middle School, this class covers various types of problems seen in math competitions such as MATHCOUNTS and AMC contests. Despite the name, this class is for both middle school and high school students interested in taking a deeper dive into math. From Algebra to Counting to Probability to Number Theory to Geometry, we will go through the major topics found in national math competitions and many good, hard math problems.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Strong foundation in pre-algebra (order of operations, distributive property, one-step equations i.e. x+4 = 7, find x) and an interest in math outside of the standard classroom.

M13994: Generalization Bounds in Machine Learning Full!
Difficulty: ***

This course will ask the question, "why do we think that the sun will rise tomorrow?".
After all, we've only seen the sun rise finitely many times.
Why **do** we expect the pattern that "the sun rises each day" to continue?
Why **don't** we expect the pattern that "the sun rises on and only on days when the human population is less than 8 billion" to continue?

More generally, as humans and scientists, we find patterns that match our meager observations, then
we guess that those patterns will continue to hold. When we interpret the word "pattern" with
sufficient generality, there are lots of mutually inconsistent patterns that explain any given data.
Addressing this ambiguity, we typically restrict to small classes of "simple patterns". This preference
for simplicity is called Occam's Razor. We'll investigate Occam's Razor from a statistical point of view.

Topics we'll discuss may include: VC dimension, information-theoretic bounds, Dudley chaining, concentration inequalities.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
We'll rely on students' mathematical maturity and on some basic Probability and Combinatorics. Here are three fun puzzles that illustrate the sort of math we will assume (and yet will be happy to review) in this course: A. What is the average number of rolls we need before we see a six on a fair die? B. Six people sit in a room. Each two people either know or doesn't know each other. A "balanced study group" is a subset of three people such that they all know each other or all don't know each other. Do the six contain a balanced study group? C. Let's randomly select N points on the unit interval. Let's do this uniformly (each spot is equally likely) and independently (knowing where one of the N points is doesn't tell us anything about where the other points are). There will be some minimum point selected. On average, what is that minimum? Students who enjoy math will likely get a lot out of this course.

M14040: Models of Computation
Difficulty: ***

How can we talk about what computers can do mathematically? In this class, we'll talk about models of computation that attempt to capture the idea of algorithms, ranging from simple models to models that capture anything your favorite programming language can do. Using what we learn, we'll show that there are some things that you can't program, no matter how clever you are! Along the way, you'll get to play with models of computations by solving puzzles and designing algorithms.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Comfort with proofs. No knowledge of programming required!

M14047: Intro to Intro to Abstract Algebra Full!
Difficulty: ****

Abstract algebra is one of the first "advanced" courses that pure math majors are required to take. It's a huge subject with many beautiful facets, so the goal of this class is merely to give you as many glimpses as I can of the prettiest things I know of. It will be quite hard (see prerequisites), but I hope that I can convince you to continue studying math in your future.

[schedule/class structure forthcoming]

Pure math ("college math") is very different from high school math, and even competition math (if you're familiar with this), in a number of ways. The main thing I want to convey is that math is not very different from hard sciences, in that you're building up mental models of how things "should" behave, and then checking if that matches up with reality. (Unfortunately, this is the sort of thing that you can only really understand after having taken a few courses... I hope this counts as one of them.) Think of math as a huge [civilization, computer, dragon, any fascinating object of your choice], and your study of math as just understanding "how this thing works".

A few notes: 1. The exact nature of "how this thing works" is very personal -- though we have a common language for describing common parts, everyone has very different pictures in their own head (this is partly why I love math so much!) 2. The kind of thinking in high school math (calculations, solving problems) can be helpful, but ultimately they're just a tool to help you understand how this thing works.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
There are no formal prerequisites, as in I will define all the words I plan to use. In particular, you don't need to know any calculus (or anything beyond that). But I will be honest. Abstract algebra on its own can seem very unmotivated -- as a result, most abstract algebra classes are quite dry, and I don't think this class will be any different. I will try my best to remedy this, by giving lots of context and motivating examples. But if you do not already enjoy math, even this will not be enough. Let me be clear: this course will require a LOT of mathematical maturity, i.e. the ability to accept that the content on its own might be useless for a while. My hope is that by the end of the class, you will appreciate it for its beauty anyway. Please email me if you're not sure if the class is right for you.

M14117: The Mathematics of Music Full!
Difficulty: **

Why do musicians like 'thirds', 'fourths', and 'fifths'? Why does the same note played on a violin and a trombone sound so different? Are all pianos secretly out of tune? What is a polyrhythm? How can a trumpet produce all the notes with only three valves?

Come learn about the *mathematics of music* behind all these questions. A little bit of music theory and math can go a long way in understanding the structure of music in a totally new way. Expect to do a lot of careful listening as you develop your musical mind!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
**If you are in grades 7–9, this class is three stars difficulty instead of two.** On the music side, you should know very basic music theory (what is an octave? how many quarter notes in a 4/4 measure?) and you should know how to read simple sheet music. On the math side, be comfortable with algebra—we will be talking about trigonometric functions and logarithms, but it's okay if you don't know much about what those are.

M13990: Discrete Math for Computer Science Full!
Difficulty: **

Have you heard of the Monty Hall problem or RSA encryption? Learn about a vast number of topics at the intersection of mathematics and computer science! Our class will feature binary numbers, cryptography, induction proofs, and recursion. We will teach you how to write proofs and calculate probabilities. This course was inspired by the MIT class entitled "6.042 Math for Computer Science".

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Basic probability knowledge preferred but not required

M14095: Mathematical Models and How to Build One
Difficulty: **

So, when ARE you going to use all the math you have been learning? In this class, we will talk about the how mathematical models are constructed, what they can do for us, and how you could build one!

Join us if you'd like to model anything from language death to games of rock-paper-scissors. In the latter part of the course, we will make models from scratch to study phenomena of your choice!

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Limits, basic probability, derivatives. Integrals would be helpful but are not required.

M14084: Mathematical First Days Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Jessica Shi

I still remember the initial thrill of realizing that — contrary to what classes in school may lead you to think — math is not about mindlessly memorizing equations and moving around numbers. Instead, it's chock full of interesting, weird, confusing ideas, some of which I hope to share with you in this class.

We'll aim for breadth over depth, bouncing to a new topic each week and covering approximately what would be taught in the first day of an introductory class on {number theory, combinatorics, set theory, proof writing, etc.}.

In particular, we'll examine the following questions: What's so interesting about numbers? How do we count things that are not numbers? Are there things we can't count? Is any of this true?

(Caveat: specific topics may change depending on time and interest.)

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
A solid foundation in basic algebra will be assumed. Beyond that, this class is designed for students with very little to no math experience outside of the typical school curriculum. In particular, you will almost certainly be bored if this random sampling of words is familiar: modular arithmetic; stars and bars; sizes of infinity; induction.

M14060: Mathematical Modeling of Diseases Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kenneth Cox

Have you ever stared at a fourth degree polynomial and asked yourself, "When am I EVER going to use this in real life???"

The answer is probably never. However, the ideas behind fourth degree polynomials - the concepts of math in general - are actually useful in many different scenarios, including the modeling the spread of disease. In this class, we'll look at a couple of models that epidemiologists use to model the spread of diseases and see how these models impact decisions regarding these diseases, including COVID-19.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
A strong background in algebra is preferred. Some calculus will be used, but it won't be hard, I promise, and you don't need to know any calculus to take this class.

M14055: The Gadget Framework: Which types of changing mazes can simulate each other?
Difficulty: ***

This class will feel like solving a sequence of open-ended puzzles. You'll work with other students to solve these puzzles, and sometimes give mathematical arguments as to why they can't be solved.

Imagine you're in a maze, but tunnels open and close based on your movement. For example, maybe there are two tunnels which can only be passed in one direction, and when you go across either one they both flip direction (we call this a "2-toggle"). Or maybe every time you go across a certain tunnel in either direction, another tunnel switches between open and closed (we call this "tripwire lock").

It's possible to put together several 2-toggles to construct something which behaves like a tripwire lock. It's also possible to use several tripwire locks to build a 2-toggle. In this class, we'll investigate which "gadgets" can simulate other gadgets. We'll play with lots of gadgets, including the 2-toggle and tripwire lock, and see what they can build. In some cases, we'll prove that certain gadgets can't simulate certain other gadgets. We might even find general-purpose simulations, showing that a particular gadget can simulate every possible gadget (or every gadget with some property).

This will be a hands-on class, mostly focusing on you finding simulations for yourselves.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
No particular knowledge is required, but you will enjoy this class most if you enjoy thinking about math problems and puzzles for their own sake.

M14131: A Cute Introduction to Group Theory
Difficulty: ***

Suppose I give you a set of elements and some operation, and I tell you six very basic facts about this set. Can you tell me what the set is? With a topic as well-studied and foundational as group theory, the simplest of facts can develop into some incredibly powerful results.

Group theory is one of the most central studies in math; in fact, most everything you've dealt in with math belongs to a group. The integers form a group; so are the symmetries of a square. Because of its ubiquity, group theory both generalizes our already familiar knowledge and provides various tools to tackle problems in other areas of math, some of which we'll see near the end of the class.

This class will hopefully make large parts of basic group theory much more accessible to facilitate future, more advanced studies!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
some proof experience and enthusiasm for math; some number theory knowledge will be helpful but not necessary

Science

S14126: Virology, Epidemiology, and Wellness during COVID-19 Full!
Difficulty: **

Learn about the biology and epidemiology behind COVID-19, and what you can do to stay healthy and safe during these times.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
middle school algebra, middle school biology

S14036: Introduction to Immunology
Difficulty: **

This introductory class explores the different cell types and mechanisms involved in the immune system. We will learn how the human body uses its immune arsenal to keep us healthy, and what happens if it fails, in cases like hypersensitivity or autoimmune diseases. We will also dive into how pathogens and diseases like cancer are able to trick our immune systems and the ways in which our bodies can fight back, with and without the help of medicine. Ultimately, this class will not only introduce you to the world of immunology, but also discuss the real-life applications of your newfound knowledge in research labs here at MIT! P.S. We will be spending some time talking about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and what scientists know so far about its impact on the immune system.

(Come for facts about the immune system, stay for the memes)

Class Style
Lecture

S14022: A History of Science (minus Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton) Full!
Difficulty: **

Often the famous scientists we hear the most about are old white men, and scientists in movies almost always look like some version of Albert Einstein. Underneath this stereotype are centuries of groundbreaking scientific contributions from women and people of color. In this class, we'll explore these often untold stories, from the first woman mathematician in ancient Egypt to the African American women who helped put a man on the moon. We'll discuss the lives these fantastic scientists led and their exciting contributions to science.

Class Style
Discussion

S13985: Molecules in Motion: Intro to Biological Thermodynamics Full!
Difficulty: ***

Under what conditions will an antibody bind to an antigen? What is the probability that an ion channel is open? What is cooperativity? This course will cover thermodynamic principles such as free energy, the laws of thermodynamics and basic statistical mechanics, as well as their application to different biological systems.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Knowledge of basic chemistry and physics principles is helpful but not required.

S14028: Lung Health 101 Full!
Difficulty: *

Pre-Med? Care about the air? Got lungs? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then Lung Health 101 is the class for you. Through this class, we will explore lung anatomy, pulmonary diseases, life as a pulmonologist, air quality, pollution, and the impact of cigarettes and vaping. Given the current pandemic, this class is extremely relevant as it gives insight into how the lungs work.

Class Style
Lecture

S14046: Mechanisms of Disease Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Clair Travis

We've all heard of cancer, viruses, heart disease, and genetic disorders but how do they actually cause illness?

Here we will explore the biochemical basis for the effects of different diseases. We'll also highlight active areas of research and what is still unknown about common diseases.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
High school level (or Introductory) Biology Some Chemistry background

S14107: Weird and useful microbial metabolism Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Erin Reynolds

Metabolism refers to the processes by which organisms break down molecules to obtain energy and synthesize molecules necessary for life. Humans obtain energy by breaking down food and reducing oxygen to water in the process of aerobic respiration. However, microbes are capable of a much more diverse array of metabolisms. In this class we will cover the fundamental energetics underlying metabolism and learn about microbes that can obtain energy from weird sources including rocks and inorganic gases. We will also learn about the important role that microbial metabolisms play in wastewater treatment, the gut microbiome, bioremediation, and industrial biotechnology.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
A basic biology and chemistry course (middle school level is fine)

S14112: Biochemical Principles of Energy Metabolism Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jiayi Dong, Lia Tian

Have you ever wondered how the sandwich you eat from lunch magically turns into energy? We all know that mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell, but what does that mean on a molecular level? Embark on a journey with us and learn more than you ever wanted to know about the biochemical basis of metabolism.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
basic biology knowledge

S14090: Mastery of Light Full!
Difficulty: **

Light is prevalent in modern technology, from the use of lasers to read discs and control atoms to cameras and optic in both phones and telescopes that can see the farthest hints of the universe's origin. This class aims to give an introduction to light, optics, and the use of optical science in experimental physics.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Algebra/Trigonometry

S14076: How to Make a Child: Developmental Psychology Crash Course Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Melissa Santos

How do children learn how to walk? Talk? Does our relationship with our parents influence our future relationships? Come find out the answers to these questions and many more! We'll talk about how children grow in the first five years of life, rapidly developing the motor, perceptual, linguistic, and socioemotional abilities we often take for granted.

Each class, there will be a lecture featuring key research studies, theories, and of course, cute baby videos. We will also have plenty of time for questions, discussions, and activities. Here's a brief overview of the 6-week syllabus:

Week 1: How do scientists learn about babies and children? Introduction and class overview
Week 2: Babies know 1+1=2?! Perception and motor development
Week 3: Babies understand grammar?! Language learning and speech
Week 4: Do babies have morality? Empathy, helping, and fairness
Week 5: Do babies recognize race and gender? Social categories
Week 6: Where do we go from here? Applying class concepts to early childhood education, toys, and storybooks [interactive final activity!]

Class Style
Lecture

S14073: Help Solve Climate Change!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Darya Guettler

Want to learn about climate change solutions and how YOU can help out?Combining science and policy, we'll use a new simulation model created here at MIT to try out a variety of existing solutions to climate change, and learn about all types of policies out there!

Class Style
Activity

S14116: Introduction to Thermal Sciences and How They Can Help Save the World!
Difficulty: **

Come join graduate members of The Rohsenow-Kendall Heat Transfer Laboratory to learn about how you can help solve the climate crisis and ensure the 4 billion people around the world that face water scarcity have water to drink! We will be walking through the basics of thermodynamics and heat transfer as they are applied to solving some of today's most pressing problems. From helping produce the food you eat, to the water you drink, to providing electricity to charge your cell phone, thermal sciences play an essential role in the world around us. We would love to get you started!

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Algebra and Geometry

S14054: Pathology naturewalk
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Andrew Thompson

A crash course in the study of disease. Each class will begin with introducing the pathophysiology of select disease processes and using this to showcase the interactions of the various organ systems. Each class will end with a show-and-tell of sorts connecting the discussed disease with phenomena of the everyday and nature. The overall theme of the course will revolve around the examining of boundaries, in the body and in nature. The place where one thing meets another is where all the interesting stuff happens.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
firm understanding of basic biology and chemistry concepts/phenomena

S14049: Thermodynamics with Applications
Difficulty: ***

Thermodynamics: the most dreaded class that you have to take before obtaining that coveted engineering degree. OR! Thermodynamics, one of the coolest subjects that explains just about everything (kind of), from how molecules interact with one another to how we can stop climate change.

This is a moderately spicy yet exciting class that will discuss the fundamental understanding of energy that AP Chemistry sadly does not teach you. We will build from a molecular description of gases to statistical mechanics (not as scary as it sounds!), derive the Ideal Gas Law, see that the Ideal Gas Law sadly does not always work and learn about non-ideality, and then apply those concepts to chemical and biological engineering.

Learn about the First, Second, and Third Laws of Thermodynamics, mass and energy balances, power cycles, entropy, equations of state, vapor-liquid equilibrium and more!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Knowledge of differential and integral calculus (AP Calculus or equivalent) is required, as we will be taking lots of derivatives and integrals! Previous basic thermodynamics knowledge is helpful (i.e. from AP Chemistry, understanding of the Ideal Gas Law), but we will be deriving everything from first principles.

S14078: SAT at home Physics
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Melis Hunt

Expect to study everyday examples and brain teasers to help you remember concepts come exam time! We’ll review all of high school Physics in six hours. Ask me all your Physics questions you didn’t get a chance to ask someone else!

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Previous knowledge of high school level Physics. For example in Waves and Optics Topic: 1. General wave properties, such as wave speed, frequency, wavelength, 2. Reflection and refraction, such as Snell’s law, 3. Ray optics, such as image formation using mirrors, and lenses, 4.Physical optics, such as single-slit diffraction, double-slit interference.

S14127: Intro to Vaccines Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ifunanya Nwolah

This course is designed to be an introductory course to immunology and vaccine design.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Any form of Biology.

S14039: Food Science - Cooking for Experimentalists
Difficulty: ***

Ever wonder what chocolate and airplane wings have in common? What about whipped cream and styrofoam? Ice cream and solar cells? Learn about cutting-edge research and engineering through hands-on food science! Each session will be themed by a reaction or class of materials, including guided at-home food labs for the day. These include scientific concepts that students will use to build chemical intuition and understanding, which can be applied in school and in the kitchen.

Class Style
Seminar

S13986: Intro to Synthetic Biology!
Difficulty: **

How does engineering intersect with biology? How can rabbit genes be expressed in plants? What are policies and ethics behind gene editing? If you're interested in finding out these and more, this class is for you!

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Introductory biology knowledge (DNA transcription, translation, replication, etc.) is strongly recommended and helpful but not required.

S13995: Alchemy! Full!
Difficulty: *

This course will cover the history of alchemy (adopting a loose definition of the word) from the Middle Ages to present day - think attempts to find the "universal elixir" to modern day nuclear power plants.

Class Style
Lecture

S14092: Introduction to Genetics
Difficulty: **

Do you want to learn about the foundations of life? This course will give you a comprehensive and integrative look at basic principles of genetics. You'll be left in awe over the remarkable fact that every aspect of physical life has its root in the complex yet perfectly coordinated genetic principles that we will study in this course. You'll learn about the basics of genetics, from the molecular to the macroscopic level. We will talk about DNA, inheritance, genetic diseases, and how we conduct experiments to deepen our understanding of genetics. By the end of this course, you will have gained a basic understanding of how our genetic makeup directly influences our physical characteristics.

Class Style
Lecture

S14062: Pandemics, Epidemics and Genomics
Difficulty: **

How can the world’s worst microbes be defeated using cutting edge advances in genomics and gene editing? We will use the backdrop of the current coronavirus pandemic to learn how genomic technologies can be developed to address challenges in infectious disease control and treatment.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Basic understanding of concepts in biology (e.g. DNA, RNA, proteins)

S14081: Women's Health
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Anna Wilson

Have you ever wanted to know more about the female body? This class will demystify the things that you've heard of but may not fully understand. We'll cover birth control, periods, pregnancy, birth, ovarian and breast cancer, hormonal disorders, menopause, sexually transmitted infections, and more. Your new knowledge about women's bodies will serve you throughout life.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
maturity, any gender is welcome

S13998: Introduction to Economics
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yifan Wu

This course is designed to be an introductory class focusing on the basic concepts of economics. You will learn concepts including but not limited to supply & demand, utility, indifference curve, etc.
The best part of this course is that I will walk you through some real life economic phenomena and show you how to rationalize them at the end. Come and join me if you are interested!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Being able to solve linear equation with one variable

S14097: Introduction to Criminology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Steven Swee

When watching crime drama on TV, many of us are usually thinking the question, "Who dun it?" However, once we see the police capture the criminal, we usually forget about why did the criminal do the crime? This class takes a brief look at some criminological theories to get a better understanding of why people do crime.

Class Style
Lecture

S14069: Food Science 101 Full!
Difficulty: **

Why do we knead bread dough? Can you "un-cook" an egg? Why do we refrigerate our food? Learn the answers to these questions and more in Food Science 101!

Class Style
Seminar

Difficulty: **

Ever wonder how our bodies repair themselves after all the crazy dumb stuff we do? Hated spring because of pollen? Thought about how cancer cells avoid detection by displaying the immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 to engage CD8+ T cells’ PD-1 receptor and trick them into thinking it’s one of your normal cells? Haha jk… unless…?

Join us to learn more about the amazing, intricate immune systems behind all of these processes! Developed over the course of history through our never-ending battle with the pathogens in our environments, our immune systems strike an intricate balance distinguishing between foreign invaders (like bacteria and viruses) and our own tissues.
In this class, we’ll break down the basic biology of the immune system, going over some of the main cell types and mechanisms and how scientists discovered these fundamental principles. We’ll also discuss some crazy cool topics and applications in modern immunology, including advanced research techniques (from transgenic mice and CRISPR to single cell RNA sequencing and deep learning) and new clinical approaches and immunotherapies.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Basic biology knowledge

S14132: Searching for Minds, Empirically: Introduction to Neuroscience of Consciousness Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Zoe Lee

We all have a mind, or consciousness, that we believe is at the core of our identity. And for a very long time (since 8000BCE!), we have known that what the mind experiences depends on the activity of the brain. So, as science often comes to aid in answering big questions, when we ponder how the brain gives rise to the mind and attempt to fit this seemingly immaterial entity into the rest of the physical world, we turn to the empirical study of the brain: neuroscience.

In this class, we will look at some ways that neuroscience has progressed in recent years in finding consciousness in the brain, as well as some challenges that empirical science faces in doing so.

We will tackle this task by addressing the following questions each week:
1. What is consciousness? How do we define and search for the invisible mind in the physical world?
2. What happens when consciousness is not there?
3. How do we measure consciousness?
4. Can you be conscious.. but also unconscious?
5. Can consciousness arise from stuff that is not brain-matter (i.e. neurons)?
6. Can the "self", our subjective experience, be measured with neuroscience?

(See also H14068: Searching for Minds, Metaphysically: Introduction to Philosophy of Consciousness, for a class on the philosophical discussion of consciousness!)

Class Style
Seminar

S14043: The Incredible Diversity of Microbial Life
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Annika Gomez

Come watch the incredible diversity of microbial life unfold right in front of you! This class will focus on the ecology, evolution, and diversity of microbes. In the first week students will construct their own Winogradsky columns (closed devices used to grow a diverse array of microbes) from household materials. You will learn about experimental design and collaborate during class to use your devices to answer questions about environmental microbiology. We'll be using this class-wide experiment as a basis for understanding and discussing how microbes grow, adapt, and interact in many different environments. Approximately 3/4 of the class time will be spent on lectures, with the other 1/4 devoted to discussing questions and results you are seeing in your Winogradsky columns. You'll be able to observe and learn from your column for months after class ends! Get ready to be amazed by the unseen world around you!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Familiarity with the following concepts: cellular organelle structure and function, the central dogma of molecular biology, natural selection

S13997: The Biological Basis of Neurological Disorders Full!
Difficulty: **

Neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health, affecting as many as one billion people worldwide. In this course, we will learn about how biological and neural abnormalities contribute to different neurological disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and many more. Just as importantly, we will learn about treatments for these disorders, with a focus on both current and future therapies.

Class Style
Lecture

S14013: Quantum Computing! Full!
Difficulty: ***

Quantum computing is apparently the future - people are putting the word "quantum" in front of everything these days. This class will teach you the basics of how quantum computers work, how we can build them, and some neat stuff that we can do with them. It'll be up to you to decide how much of a difference they'll ever make!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Knowing some algebra and trigonometry will be helpful. We'll also use 2x2 matrices, so reviewing those before the first class will be helpful.

S14005: Physics- From Newton to Relativity, Black Holes, Inflation, the Universe and Beyond
Difficulty: ***

Howdy! This class will introduce the fundamentals of physics and use these basic concepts to understand complicated, buzz-word topics in physics like black holes and the expansion of the universe. This class is designed to be fun and intuitive, and we will dive deep to see beauty in physics! While this class will include mathematical derivations, the main goal of the class is to build physical intuition and introduce students to concepts they will see in future physics courses.
*Some physics will be explained through country music.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Required: algebra, trigonometry, intro physics class (middle school level acceptable) Highly Recommended: basic calculus

S14045: Pandemics Explained
Difficulty: **

"Pandemic". You’ve probably heard this word thrown around daily ever since the emergence of COVID-19.

But what exactly is a pandemic? How does something as small as a virus make such huge impacts? Why has the world reacted to COVID-19 in certain ways, and what can we learn before the next pandemic arrives? This course aims to give you insight into all of these questions and hopefully more.

We’ll first dive into pathogen biology: their structure and origins, how they infect and sicken humans, and how they spread between individuals. We’ll also give an overview of disease diagnostics, the importance of “physical distancing” and other low-impact public health interventions, the rationale behind stay-at-home orders and large-scale disruptions, and more.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
All you need is an interest in the subject! Prior knowledge of some biology, chemistry, and math will be helpful but isn't required.

S14133: Science and Economics of Climate Change: Understanding Environmental Successes and Failures
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Andrew Lin, Lily Zhang

Climate change is always in in the news, but what is the science behind how carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other human activities impact our climate? What are the economic drivers behind pollution and how successful has environmental policy been in addressing climate issues?

This class will give you a unique understanding of the climate change issue from a scientific and economic perspective. We’ll explore three different climate change phenomenon and discuss how successful different policy instruments have been/can be in addressing each of them.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Background in physics, chemistry, and algebra helpful but not required.

S14033: Fundamentals of the CRISPR-Cas9 World
Difficulty: **

Wondering why you should care?
Well, if you’ve been hearing all the buzz about cutting-edge research efforts for cancer and disease treatment, or the controversial possibilities of creating designer babies and are curious about the technology that is making it all a reality—you’ve come to the right place!

CRISPR gets down to the very element encoding us, the DNA we carry in our cells, in order to change it and modify the organism, allowing for a host of applications researchers are keen to create. We’ll take you through the entire process and relevance of modifying DNA and then do deep dives into how the CRISPR system operates. You will learn about how we discovered CRISPR and even where we’re heading with the technology.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Introductory high-school biology would be beneficial. But the lectures will touch the basics too.

S14103: How to Build Nuclear Weapons
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Benjamin Spector

An instructive, practical course on how to build a nuclear bomb from the ground up, as well as modern designs. Includes discussion of the involved physics, chemistry, and engineering -- by the completion of the course, students should be able to construct a small warhead just using leftovers from the previous evening's dinner. (No, not really.) Additionally, students will learn about nuclear reactors, enrichment, fusion, and ethics.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Algebra 1, basic chemistry & physics

S13999: Seedy Dealings: The Rise of Plants
Difficulty: **

Why do pinecones grow in a spiral pattern? How did plants move from water to land? How can they use catapults to launch spores? In this class, you will learn how plants have been doing these and more for over 400 million years!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Introductory biology is recommended but not required.

S14124: BRAINSSS - how do they work? Full!
Difficulty: **

Have you ever thought about why green apples always appear green? Or how we know which way the kitchen is? How are you even thinking about all these things? Let's learn about the neuroscience behind all this, and more!

The class will focus not only on the things we know about the brain, but what experiments and methods were used to learn them in the first place.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
You must be excited to learn about how our most important organ works! Some familiarity with biological facts or the scientific method might come in handy, but aren't required.

S14053: The 6 Coolest Topics in Biotechnology!
Difficulty: **

Ok, maybe the title is a little subjective, but we still think these biology/biotech topics are really cool and we hope you will too! This class will teach you about 6 topics that are at the frontier of modern biology and are booming areas of research and development. These topics (in no particular order) are:

1. CRISPR (not just CRISPR babies but also other cool uses for CRISPR/Cas)
2. DNA origami and computing
3. Gene circuits and synthetic biology
4. RNA sequencing
5. 3C (chromosome conformation capture)
6. Stem cells and tissue engineering

In each lecture, we'll cover the discovery/origin of each technique as well as current research and applications. Extra focus will be given to understanding primary research studies and experiments.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
An understanding of DNA/RNA/enzymes and their functions, what cells are and the functions of their components, and some basic algebra will be greatly helpful! A working knowledge of basic biology lab techniques, such as gel electrophoresis and PCR, would also be helpful. In terms of classes, completion of AP Biology would be ideal, but completion of first-year high school biology will be just fine.

S14016: From Engineering Genes to Fish Glowing Green: the Basics of the Biology and Ethics of Gene Editing
Difficulty: **

What do fluorescent green tadpoles, insulin, and golden rice all have in common? They've all been genetically engineered!
Have you ever wondered how genetic engineering works, what it can do, and what it means for the world?
In this course, we'll start with the biological basics behind gene editing , then delve deeper into the specific methods used, like CRISPR- Cas9. At the end, we'll talk about applications (including glowing fish, and now even genetically modified humans) and whether the science that has been done and will continue to be done has been ethical.

Class Style
Seminar

S14018: Cool Theories in Math and Physics by Caltech Students
Difficulty: **

Want to learn more about the coolest theories in math and physics? Here we will cover a different topic each week, ranging from Godel's Incompleteness Theorems to Special Relativity. If you’re interested in theoretical math and physics but aren’t quite sure where to dive in, this is the place! While you’re here feel free to ask any of us teachers about our experiences with research, Caltech, or the college application process. Hope to see you soon!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Precalculus recommended

S14113: Stem Cells and Cardiology
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Han, Masood Jan

Many believe that the cures to most diseases lie in stem cell science and research, yet others fear repercussions that could forever alter our social conscience and morality. This class takes students on a journey inside the stem cell revolution, where perspectives from scientists, researchers, policy-makers, and ethicists will challenge students to consider the societal, political, even spiritual implications of this rapidly developing frontier.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
none

S14106: Great and Small: Crazy Electrons
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Caolan John

Electrons are everywhere. They are one of the fundamental building blocks of nature, responsible for holding together most of the world around us. At the same time, we have learned to make tremendous use of them in modern electronics where they power our computers and charge our phones.

Electrons are also funny characters. On their own, these particles can’t stand being near each other and possess “fundamental” traits like charge and mass. However, when nature allows them to dance with each other in some materials, they can do wonderful things like conduct electricity perfectly, seemingly split into smaller pieces, and even behave like light itself. Together we’ll explore how these little guys operating at the small scale are able to do such great feats at the large one.

This course is designed to be an accessible and exciting introduction to the crazy world of electrons. On our journey we will uncover the wonders of superconductivity, explore how transistors work, examine the remarkable properties of graphene, and so much more. Bring your curiosity and we’ll provide the rest!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Curiosity; exposure to physics can be helpful but not required

S14020: From Molecules to Machine Learning: Introduction to Neuroscience by Caltech Students
Difficulty: **

How do complex thoughts and memories arise from the simple movement of ions in a neuron? How do we get machines to behave like humans? How can corporations take advantage of psychology to make more money? Come join us to learn about these interesting phenomena and more! Each week, we’ll be discussing different topics within neurobiology, computational neuroscience, anthropology, and psychology. During the course, we’re happy to talk about any questions you may have ranging from the college admissions process and our experiences in research, to even tips for going viral on Tik Tok.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of biology/chemistry

S14086: Fusion Energy: MIT's Pathway to Unlimited Clean Energy
Difficulty: **

Fusion energy has been the great dream of the world for nearly a century, but it often feels like a pipe dream. No radioactive waste, 0 risk of meltdown, 100s of millions of years worth of fuel on Earth alone, high power density, it's on when you need it (no need for batteries). But why don't we have it? Or do we?

This class will give you the background to understand how fusion works, what the current state of fusion research is, and where it's headed. Focus will be on MIT's initiative, and on giving you guys reasons to get hype! Spoilers: there are a lot of them :)

Class Style
Lecture

S14050: Technology in Forensic Science Full!
Difficulty: *

In Technology in Forensic Science, you will learn about the investigative equipment used to conduct forensic techniques at crime scenes and in the laboratory. Virtual activities include fingerprint detection, blood detection and analysis, biological and chemical applications, and many more!

Class Style
Lecture

S14063: Saving Lives: The Science Behind Public Health and COVID-19 Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Natalie Alvarez

What happens when a virus or bacteria infects a human cell? How does the human body protect itself? How do vaccines work? Curious on learning more about COVID-19 and what quarantining does? This class will function as an introduction to public health with a focus on the biology behind diseases . We will also take a look at how social media can help the spread of science.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Previous biology course is suggested

S14011: How the immune system works Full!
Difficulty: **

The brain is not the only part of your body that learns! Every day, cells in your adaptive immune system learn to recognize and fight bad viruses and bacteria. How do those cells do it, and what can we do to help them? In this course, you will find out!

Class Style
Seminar

S14009: Sporetacular Origins: Intro to Mycology Full!
Difficulty: **

What do fungi do and why are they diverse? Why are lichens important? Is slime mold smarter than you think? If you're interested in these questions and more, this class is for you! We will cover different groups of fungi and their origins, culminating in a fungus hunt!

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Introductory biology knowledge is helpful but not required.

S14004: Geobiology and Astrobiology Full!
Difficulty: **

Interested in aliens? So are we! This class is on the most extreme life on Earth and how it can inform us in the search for life outside Earth! A lot of the life forms that you can find on Earth seem pretty alien already -- there are microbes that can survive in boiling pools of acid, in Antarctic lakes that have been frozen over for millions of years, and at the bottom of the ocean around underwater volcanoes. What are the limits for life as we know it and what does this extreme life on Earth mean about the possibility for life on planets completely different from our own? We hope to not only share some of the insanely cool science being done, but to inspire students to ask questions of their own about life and the universe.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Recommended but not required: Biology and Earth Science classes

S14057: Introduction to Epidemiology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kenneth Cox

Epidemiology is the science of diseases: how they spread, how they infect people, and how we can stop them. This course is designed for students with little to no background in biology. We will talk about topics in chemistry and biology and how they relate to diseases. We will also briefly discuss what an epidemiologist does and how disease outbreaks are stopped, in case you are interested in a career in the medical field.

I realize, given the current situation of epidemiology being popular all of a sudden, that many students might want to take this to learn more about COVID-19. However, this class is intended as an introductory epidemiology course, covering broad principles of the discipline; I won't say too much about the current pandemic (but of course I won't ignore it either).

Class Style
Lecture

S14091: Environmental Geoscience
Difficulty: **
Teachers: H. Alexander Chen

This course provides a survey of the earth's landforms and processes and investigates the ways which human impacts the environment. By using Google Earth and air photos, students will examine landscape features on the surface of the earth and learn the mechanisms behind them. By exploring case studies such as Superfund Sites, oil spill, air/water pollution, students will investigate how human alters earth's environment. Topics includes but not limited to rivers and streams, basins, mountain-building events, coastal processes, glaciers and glacial processes, aquifers, and environmental pollution.

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
None.

Miscellaneous

X14100: Quarantine Cooking with Nature Full!
Difficulty: *

Stuck in isolation? Looking to upgrade your doomsday homemade food skills? Come join a group of quarantined students and learn the theory and practice of safe food storage, starting an indoor herb garden, fermenting foods, pickling foods, and making cheese, yogurt, and tempeh.
You'll get a list of ingredients and materials beforehand so you may follow along, or just tune in, ask questions, converse, and chill in this interactive class. There are a wide selection of projects, and while we don't expect you to follow every one, we do hope there are some that only need materials you already have in your everyday kitchen.

Jun 11: Intro & Herb Garden
Jun 18: Kitchen Care & Pickling
Jun 25: Fermentation
Aug 01: Cheese & Yogurt
Aug 08: Tempeh
Aug 15: Grand Dinner & Closing

With regular checkups of the state of previous projects!

Class Style
Activity

Prerequisites
Interest in food preparation, kitchen safety knowledge.

X14104: Introduction to Chinese Language and Culture Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Qi Han, Yuyang Wu

This course is open to everyone who are interested in learning Mandarin and Chinese Culture. The workload for the class is light. We will be mainly devoted into cultural experience, such as traditions, calligraphy, and artifacts. Language acquisition would include both Mandarin daily language use and short discussion about Chinese dialects. Fun activities would be designed, and specific topics may be dependent on your interests!

Class Style
Seminar

X14118: Clean and Intuitive Design: An Intro to Making User-Friendly and User-Focused Interfaces Full!
Difficulty: **

Great ideas require the right execution to be appreciated. When we show our ideas to others, the audience initially interact with it visually— they don’t necessarily see the work behind it. Even the best ideas can be undermined by poor interface design.
This course first covers the thought-process in designing interfaces, ranging from websites we see everyday to phone apps to posters. The magical process of how these interfaces we interact with capture our attention and are intuitive. With the audience in mind and the use of psychology, a simple design can be transformed into something with the power to get people’s attention.
This course then gives students the tools to build a basic website where they can showcase their interests (and show it off to others). This means learning to use GitHub to host a website and html functions to make it happen all while keeping design in mind to make it intuitive and powerful.
The principles covered go beyond this course, applying to many fields.

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Just a love for learning!

X14088: Did We Start the Fire? History from 1949-1989 as Told by Billy Joel's "We Didn't Start The Fire"
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Gabriel Spahn, Alan Zhu

Ever wanted to learn the history of the world from 1949 to 1989 but never had any idea how? Well, fortunately, in "We Didn't Start the Fire", Billy Joel meticulously lists every important event which occurred during those four decades [citation needed]. In this class, we'll go through each and every reference made by Billy Joel in a song that he notoriously called "like a dentist's drill," and hopefully learn something about history along the way.

Class Style
Lecture

X14023: (Virtual) Walking Tours of the Greater Boston Area
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Samantha Webster

Boston is an awesome city, and I'll take you on six (virtual) walking tours to some of my favorite buildings and sights. You'll get some quirky fun facts, some fascinating history, and some cemetery recommendations. Buckle up, because we can cover a lot more ground on Zoom than if we were actually walking! (For those prone to motion sickness, rest assured there will be minimal hand-held camerawork.)

Class Style
Lecture

Prerequisites
Tennis shoes and sunscreen recommended for an authentic experience.

X14000: Rationality: How to model our world, seek truth, and strive for good decisions
Difficulty: **

Does human behavior sometimes confuse you? How do people think about thinking, and how can we get better at it? We’ll start this class by learning clearer, more precise vocabulary to describe our world and our perceptions of it. But we’ll also see that our brains themselves are imperfect instruments, so we’ll develop strategies to correct for it. Finally, equipped with a better understanding of how our brains can work for (or against) us, we’ll discuss how to become better calibrated in decision-making and navigating the world.

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
This class would be a good fit for people who like to introspect, reflect to themselves, or think about problems deeply. For instance, if your gut reaction to the previous sentence was along the lines of "Hm... I think I do, but I'm not sure. Let me think about it.”, then you should consider signing up! All that said, we also believe that this skill is something one can develop with practice, so if you're still unsure, don't let the above deter you.

X14134: Lecture and Workshop Series
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Felix Li

Do you have a free block or blocks and don't know what to do? Instead of taking a nap or watching another Netflix show between classes, get a chance to learn about a professor's research, ask questions to MIT students, or learn a new skill!

Get introduced to exciting topics that you may never have heard or known about! In this class, you'll get to explore a new topic every week through engaging one-time lectures or workshops given by various teachers.

Maybe you'll come out of this class with a new found passion, virtual friend from across the world, skill that you can show off - so take the "risk"! Topics will vary (alot) so if you like spontaneity and learning about a bunch of things get excited!!

Class Style
Lecture

X14083: Shooting for the Stars: Applying to a Top College or University as a Minority
Difficulty: *

HEY YOU! Yeah, you! If you're a student already searching for courses offered through ESP, chances are, you want to go to college. MIT, Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, Yale and all the other big names in American academics - all trying to scare one person: you. But applying to these places should not be intimidating. Taught by incoming, first-generation, MIT freshmen, this whole course is meant to give you the necessary tools, insights, and confidence needed to apply to such schools and give you the best chance at getting accepted!

Trust us, since we were in your shoes not too long ago we know a thing or two.

Class Style
Discussion

X14041: So You Want To Be A College RA?
Difficulty: *

Want to go to college with a free bedroom to yourself, financial aid, a bi-weekly paycheck, priority class registration, and a free meal plan? Colleges offer many of these perks to Residential Assistants (RAs). RAs are undergraduate students who live in a dorm on campus and help fellow students on their floor through the college experience. RAs bond with their floor mates, give advice, host social events, and act as first responders in crisis situations. Being an RA is a great way to amp up your resume and impress employers.

In this class, we will learn about the general responsibilities and skills needed to succeed as an RA. Taking this class will also be helpful if you plan on being a camp counselor, teacher, or other leadership position. In addition, we will review the general application process so that you can put your best foot forward in the selective application process. I believe you're up for this challenge

Class Style
Discussion

Prerequisites
Warning: Being an RA might change your life, make lifelong friendships, and turn you into a leader

X14010: Chess for First Time Players Full!
Difficulty: *

“Every chess master was once a beginner.” – Irving Chernev

This course is designed to give first time players an introduction to chess fundamentals. We will begin by going over the rules of the game, then we will cover some basic endgames, tactics, and briefly discuss opening theory. We'll review a few famous games before having our own online tournament.

Class Style
Lecture

X14027: The Art of Cryptography Full!
Difficulty: **

Have you ever wanted to send secret messages without being detected? Have you ever wondered how the internet is able to keep your private information safe? Join us in this class to learn all about the wonders of cryptography. This class requires no background knowledge––we will teach you everything you need to know with plenty of fun activities and prizes!

This class will cover the history of cryptography and will teach you basic methods of encrypting information. We will cover mono and polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, Caesar ciphers, and other modes of encryption. We will also talk about applications of cryptography to current topics in computer science and information technology, discussing internet safety, RSA encryption, and quantum computing.

Class Style
Lecture

X14119: Guide to Investing in the Stock Market Full!
Difficulty: **

Want to learn how the basics of investing in the stock market? Is it possible to be an ethical, but profitable investor? What are the best strategies for making profit? Take this course if you're looking for a crash course on investing!

Class Style
Seminar

Prerequisites
Background in statistics strongly preferred, but not necessary.