Spark 2016
Course Catalog


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Walk-in Activity Mathematics
Engineering Humanities
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Social Studies Computers and Programming
Visual and Performing Arts Life Sciences
Physical Sciences


Visual and Performing Arts

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A10378: Developing Your Design Thinking
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Steven Faerm

How do designers create and develop ideas? What is “conceptual thinking”? Are you thinking of becoming a designer?

This lecture examines the design process. Creativity, research methods, concept development, storytelling, design processes, and more are shown in both student and professional work. A full analysis of an Alexander McQueen collection that uses all of the key points concludes the presentation. While this lecture uses fashion design as its primary ‘lens’, the ideas discussed are applicable to ALL areas of design such as graphic design, architecture, industrial design, car design, gaming, and many more!

Presented by Steven Faerm, Associate Professor, Parsons School of Design.


Prerequisites
None.

A10385: Improv Games Full!
Difficulty: *

Let's play improv games together! From freeze to taxi to zip-zap-zop, it'll be lots of fun. No experience required.

A10396: Exploring IQ Lights
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Stephanie Lin, Faye Wu

Making 3D puzzles into lights? Sign me up! In this class, we will explore ways to connect flexible, identical Polypropylene pieces to make interesting polyhedra, which can be used as artistic lights.


Prerequisites
Be able to work with your hands

A10241: Chain Mail Weaving
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Miranda Gavrin

Learn to make chain mail. Make earrings or a bracelet and learn everything you need to start weaving your own armor!

A10474: Modular Origami Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Sophie Mori

In modular origami, we fold many modules (units) that have flaps and pockets. Then we can assemble them to create beautiful, colorful, complex three-dimensional structures!

A10408: Crash Course in Conducting! Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Aisha Wang

There is a rather infamous analogy that involves comparing the conductor of a large ensemble to a meerkat flailing about and the rest of the orchestra as wildebeest, elephants, and other creatures as depicted in the "Circle of Life". Conducting is about expression, creativity, leadership, all coupled with a deep desire to focus the herd and create art. Come learn how to synchronize your arm flailing to the heartbeats of your musicians, raise a ruckus, and control your ensemble with your eyebrows alone!


Prerequisites
Musical experience is required for this class, as I will be discussing musical terms, watching clips of performances, and handing out sheet music to be read and followed. You should also be willing to experiment with flailing your limbs about and be comfortable with being critiqued by your peers and instructor on your technique. Students with prior experience with conducting are discouraged from applying to this class, as this is for absolute beginners.

A10489: song writing seminar Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joshua Freeburn

In a small group we will write and record a song using modern recording technologies and popular song writing methods.

A10242: Advanced Chain Mail Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Miranda Gavrin

Already know the basics of weaving chain mail? Want to do some cooler projects? Come to this class to learn new techniques!


Prerequisites
Must already have experience manipulating chain mail rings. Ideally, should remember how to do 4-in-1.

A10416: Science Can Dance
Difficulty: **

Come learn about how science makes dance possible and how we can use dance to make science fun!

A10327: Intro to Anamorphic Drawing Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Francesca Majluf

Have you ever seen pictures of wicked crazy 3D street art? Come learn how to do it with a paper, a ruler and a pencil!


Prerequisites
Some previous drawing class would be good.

A10483: Fold an Origami Box! Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Herng Yi Cheng

Paper airplanes not enough for you? Origami is the art of paperfolding, and it’s great because you can fold awesome shapes and gadgets from one of the most common materials around! Join us for some finger folding fun; you too can can create something cool, with your own hands. No prior experience necessary.


Prerequisites
Bring your hands!

A10427: Céad Míle Fáilte: An Introduction to Irish Dance
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Kathryn Buggs

Join us for some toe-tapping fun! We'll learn some beginner jig and reel steps, listen to some great Irish tunes, and talk about what makes Irish dance such a unique activity.


Prerequisites
No dance experience required. Please wear tennis shoes or other shoes that you won't fall skipping/jumping/dancing in.

A10413: Introduction to Zentangling
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Emily Golubowski

This class will be a free and open space to engage in zentangling- a form of drawing. A brief history will be provided on the concept of zentangling, and there will be some open ended instructions for a few individual and group projects. This is a very unstructured course with the intentions of providing you with the time and space to relax, draw, and chill out!


Computers and Programming

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C10383: Introduction to Cryptography
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Devin Neal

We'll discuss the fundamentals of cryptography and a few interesting cryptographic systems including RSA and Diffie-Hellman.


Prerequisites
Basic number theory Programming exposure will be helpful, but isn't necessary

C10481: Intro Programming in Python
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jordan Moldow

print “Ever wanted to learn how to program?"
if your_answer == “yes”:
print “Awesome! Take this class, and learn how to program in Python"


# This is a class for students with no prior programming experience. We will cover the fundamentals of programming, using the popular language of Python. The class will be a mix of lecture, where you will learn the introductory aspect of the language, and hands-on programming. We’ll have lots of fun writing and running cool programs, and you’ll learn a lifelong skill in the process.

# No prior programming experience required. Students who have never programmed before and are interested in learning are encouraged to register. If you have programmed with Python before, you probably already know all the material that will be covered in this class.

C10487: Music Recording and Production
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joshua Freeburn

We will discuss the following as they pertain to the recording and production of music.instrumentation, Digital Audio Workspace (DAW), Music production, and the effect of modern technology on the recoding process.
We will use the industry standard digital audio workspace called logic, to record and mix a song. Student participation will be utilized.

C10419: Security on the Internet Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Favyen Bastani

The Internet is a complex system, connecting tens of thousands of networks and supporting hundreds of thousands of applications. Because of this complexity, vulnerabilities inevitably arise that allow malicious actors to make services temporarily unusable, or even to bypass access control mechanisms and extract private data.

We will start by looking at low-level IP address spoofing and network-layer denial of service attacks. We will work our way up to common security issues in the world wide web, including SQL injection and cross-site scripting attacks.

C10455: Privacy in the Age of Smartphones Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Eric Mannes

Do you use the Internet? Own a smartphone? Every click you make and step you take produces data about you, much of which can paint a very personal picture of your life. This data is stored and used by many organizations, both governments and companies, some of which you probably don't even know the names of.

In this class, you'll learn what data exists about you and what it says about you. We'll discuss what privacy means in today's age.

C10450: Coding is for girls
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Zoe Snape

Have you ever heard that girls aren't good at programming? I'm here to tell you that people who say that are Wrong. Students of all genders are invited to learn about the past, present, and future of women in computer science. We'll talk about historical figures from Ada Lovelace to Margaret Hamilton, hear from female programmers about what it's like to work in the industry today, and share opportunities for the next generation of computer scientists (that's you!)

C10423: Distributed Data Processing Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Favyen Bastani

How do large-scale web services like search engines and social networks quickly analyze hundreds of terabytes of data? In this class, we'll explore common distributed data processing architectures; we'll look at distributed filesystems, parallel MapReduce, and resilient distributed datasets.

C10431: Dynamic Web Programming with JavaScript and NodeJS Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Martin Schneider

Already know some HTML & CSS? Come learn how to make exciting, dynamic webpages with JavaScript!

We'll refresh our HTML knowledge, learn how JavaScript can be used in the browser, and talk a bit about how the internet works.

Then, we'll move on to make our own web servers in NodeJS: a JavaScript powered backend for web apps.

By the end, we'll have made our own super cool chat server!


Prerequisites
Experience with HTML & CSS will be highly useful.

C10411: Famous Results From Female Computer Scientists
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jayson Lynch

From the first programming language and the first computer bug to work on the protocols that keep our information safe and revolutionizing the very notion of a proof, female researchers have made amazing contributions to computer science. We'll take a tour through some of these results and discuss their impact on the field as a whole.

C10336: Hackintosh 101 Full!
Difficulty: ***

The objective of this course is to introduce/design stable Hackintosh computers running on Intel PC/Laptop hardware. Lectures with follow-up question and answer for each topic covered. Students will cover the Hackintosh upgradable and robust platform(s) capable of hosting OSX operating systems.

Topics will cover:
1. Recommended hardware for optimal compatibility. Motherboard, CPU, GPU, RAM, PSU, and Cooling.
2. Installing and configuration of hardware.
3. BIOS configurations (UEFI vs. EFI)
4. Boot-loader and Multi-boot configuration.
5. RAID configurations. The advantages/disadvantages of Hardware RAID vs FakeRAID vs AppleRAID. Selection of Mirror vs Stripe and optimal disk layouts for different appplications.
6. OSX installation.
7. Preparing OSX Recovery Volume.
8. Creating OSX Time-Machine based backups.
9. Methods for automation of common tasks based on schedule such as: periodic syncing of critical data to cloud/external storage.
11. Performance/stress testing.
12. Don't Panic! Restoring backups, UPS recommendations, verbose booting, and recovering a failed RAID.
13. Finding additional Hackintosh resources on the web.

C10388: The Internet Full!
Difficulty: *

Seminar-style discussion on the internet, its history, and its cultural significance.

C10283: Intro to Technology: Arduinos
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Sarah Bricault

Ever wanted to make your computer interact with the real world? Can your code make an LED blink? Can your computer display the value of a sensor? An arduino is a small device that provides a simple interface between computers and external circuitry. We'll explore the basics of programming, the basics of simple circuits, and then progress to programming Arduinos. This is meant as a class for beginners! It will move quickly but should be accessible to everyone.


Prerequisites
None; some programming experience is beneficial, but not necessary.

C10452: The Physical Internet Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Zoe Snape

Where does the internet exist physically? The question almost doesn't make sense, but the internet we use every day is supported by a whole host of hardware, cables, and devices that we never see. This class will follow a webpage's journey from data center to your computer and examine some of the stops it makes along the way.

C10348: ScratchMIT
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ahaan Rungta

Scratch is a free programming language and online community where you can create your own interactive stories, games, and animations. In this class, we'll learn the basics of Scratch!

C10369: Beginner Web Programming Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Corinn Herrick

Want to build your own website but don't know where to start? This class is for you!

We'll talk about HTML and CSS and then practice by building our own websites!


Prerequisites
This class is for absolute beginners. If you know any HTML or CSS you will probably be bored. Go take one of the more advanced programming classes!

C10420: Our New (and Old) Robot Overlords
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jerry Wu

How does Google's computer beat the European Go champion? How do you get a program to write your class description? Why should we support vector machines? Come learn about classic and modern artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms! No programming experience required.

C10341: Python with Turtles: Intro to Programming
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jackie Bredenberg

In the programming language Python, simple programs can send virtual turtles whizzing across your screen!
We'll briefly cover the basics of programming, plus some turtle-specific commands, and then you'll be free to experiment: create drawings or even simple games!
No programming experience needed. Computers will be provided.

C10401: Intro to Programming and Computational Thinking
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Anthony Lu

Learn to command your computer to help you solve problems and understand data! This class will cover the basics of programming in Python and using the IPython Notebook, generating random numbers, running repeated simulations, and making plots and graphs.

C10451: Intro to the Command Line Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Zoe Snape

If you're like most middle schoolers, the only way you've ever interacted with a computer is using a mouse on a GUI (graphical user interface). Come to this class to learn the basics of the command line, the old-school way to control a computer using only text input.

C10302: Robust Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma: Program Equilibrium via Provability Logic Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jason Gross

The Prisoner's Dilemma is a standard example in game theory of a situation in which two "rational" players will choose not to cooperate, even though they would both be better off if they cooperated.

However, if both players are mind readers, then it is possible to construct rational agents that cooperate without going in to infinite loops.

C10342: Assorted Sorting Algorithms
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jackie Bredenberg

You have a list of ten numbers and you want to sort them from smallest to largest. Okay, you're probably just going to eyeball that.
Your computer has a list of ten million numbers and you want them sorted from smallest to largest. Aaah - what do you do?
Let's experiment with some approaches to this problem and talk about which solutions are better.* This is a central problem in computer science, but you'll get more out of this class if you've never thought about it before.
*We'll also discuss some really, really, dumb approaches, for amusement.

C10482: How This Website Works Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jordan Moldow

Ever wonder what was actually going on when Spark registration opened? Find out how the ESP website (or any website) works behind the scenes.

We’ll cover, very briefly, the basics of all the major concepts of web design, including HTML, CSS, client-side scripting, and server-side scripting. Time permitting, we'll also talk about databases, version controlling, and caching. All examples will be taken from the ESP website.

If time allows, we’ll take a look at some of the administrative portions of the website - the pages that help the Spark directors administer the program.

This class will be an overview of many different concepts of web design, and how they interact. It will not be an in-depth look at any one concept, though links to resources for additional learning will be provided.

No computer experience is required. In fact, if you have a lot of computer experience, you’ll probably be bored. But if you don’t already know most of the terms listed in the description, then you’re encouraged to register for this class!

C10424: Interactive Math with Computers
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Alex LaGrassa

Do you wish that computers could check your math homework?
Want to use your love of math to learn programming?
Come prove things with us using an interactive proof assistant, which checks to make sure all of your reasoning is mathematically correct, even if it doesn't even have numbers!

WIll cover very basic Coq and proving things about natural numbers.


Prerequisites
Programming experience would be helpful, love of math more important.

C10400: Hands-on Digital Logic Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Anthony Lu

Learn about the building blocks of computers! Logic gates are electrical components that perform basic logical operations, like AND, OR, and NOT. We'll see how these can be assembled together into more interesting circuits and even build our own using simulated logic gates.

C10280: Introduction to Programming Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sarah Bricault

Never done programming before? Interested in learning the basics? This course will serve as a *very* basic introduction in python. You'll learn about data types, for loops, while loops, if statements, and functions.

C10466: 8 Bits Walk Across a Bridge
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Chan

This is a class on bits, on how we transform everyday messages, images, and web pages into 1s and 0s. We explore how these streams of 1s and 0s are then communicated to other machines, and then decoded to be useful.


Prerequisites
Knowledge of at least (1) programming language

C10281: Algorithms of the Dummies, by the Dummies, for the Dummies
Difficulty: ***

Welcome one, welcome all! Ever wondered what algorithms are? Or dummies? How about breadth first search? Hash tables ring a bell? If any of these interest you, come by and learn to your heart's content with us!


Prerequisites
Students should have some knowledge of computers and be familiar with stacks and queues.

C10301: What is a "what if"?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jason Gross

Say there's a $5 bill and a $10 bill on a table. You can take either one of them.

Which would you take?

The $10 bill, right? What if you took the $5 bill?

This is a surprisingly subtle question, especially when you consider the fact that you are a good decision-maker, and so must have had a good reason to take the $5 bill if you took it. It's subtle enough that many decision theories get it wrong. Come learn about four decision theories (evidential, causal, timeless, and updateless), and about the decision puzzles that demonstrate why none of these is an entirely satisfactory answer to the question "What is a 'what if'?"


Engineering

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E10375: Prototyping Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Annie Dai, Karen Fan

Have you ever wanted to learn how to turn your ideas into reality? In this prototyping class, we’ll go over the steps and strategies to create your designs; we’ll be brainstorming, sketching, and building foam core prototypes with quick iterations to work towards your vision.

E10295: Environmentally Benign Design and Manufacturing
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

After this class, you will be able to: (1) justify why environmentally benign design and manufacturing matters; (2) evaluate and compare the environmental impact of various products and technologies; and (3) recognize and challenge questionable environmental analysis. Format will consist of a blend of lecture on theory and discussion on current issues.


Prerequisites
Chemistry and/or Physics background encouraged but not required.

E10449: Living on Mars
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Bruce Mackenzie

How would you build a house on Mars? We will review the conditions on Mars which affect how you would live, work, grow food, and build houses. Differences from Earth include: low temperature, very low pressure, carbon-dioxide atmosphere, almost 25 hour days, long seasons, dust, and radiation. One advantage is lots of cheap land. The Mars soil and air have every element we need to live and build structures, but not in convenient building forms such as wooden 2x4’s. We might have to make fiberglass, brick, or aluminum structures. They must be cylindrical to hold the internal air pressure, with air-locks for doors. Oh, incidentally, how to pay for the rocket to get you there is not included. I will also suggest ways you can get involved and help the settlement of space.

E10323: Rockets! Full!
Difficulty: *

Come learn about rockets and how they work! Hosted by members of the MIT Rocket Team.

E10473: Material Science and Engineering? What's that? WOW Full!
Difficulty: *

If you read the title of this course and didn't know what was going on, maybe you figured it's just some MIT voodoo, or maybe you're already a material science lover. Either way this course is for YOU! Come learn about what the heck material science is from a real life person that dedicated her 4 years at MIT to learning about it. Also we will talk about the epic mind control and nature manipulation that goes on in material science labs right here at MIT!

Oh and we may have some cool material take homes for you all!


Prerequisites
Nah, just come excited!

E10324: Exploring Aerospace
Difficulty: *

Come and learn about exciting topics relating to aeronautical and astronautical engineering! We'll talk about current research, fascinating phenomena and fundamental principles relating to aerospace. Hosted by MIT's Women in Aerospace Engineering group.

E10405: How to build laser pointers! Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Grant Falkenburg

Lasers are cool and so are you. So why haven't you built any yet? Wait, you don't know how? Let's fix that.

In this class we'll learn about the different components of laser pointers, the science behind them, and the process of putting the components together. With all of this knowledge, we'll build a laser pointer in class!

E10288: Build a Crystal Radio set!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Nadya Bedford

We'll be building simple AM crystal radio sets, converting electromagnetic waves into audio waves and discriminating between signals! I'll talk about radio theory, history, and more complex designs throughout the class, but the main focus will be on building a basic radio.

E10386: Hands-on Electronics Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Vineel Adusumilli

Learn basic electronics with this hands-on introduction.


Humanities

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H10322: How to Argue about Anything Full!
Difficulty: *

Want to be able to form a coherent, substantial argument about anything? Want to practice your impromptu debate skills? We’ll talk about how to structure an argument and come up with solid points in a really short timeframe, then put those skills into practice with some debates!

H10463: Quirky Linguistics Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ryker Reed

Like linguistics or just enjoy thinking about language? Ever noticed how weird language can be? Come learn about some of the quirkier aspects of language. We'll discuss things ranging from infixation (putting words inside other words) to semantic implication (things we say without actually saying them), and semantic satiation (that thing that happens when you say a word too many times and it stops meaning anything). Come enjoy the strangeness of language!

H10417: LGBT... Q?
Difficulty: *

There is more societal awareness, if not societal acceptance, of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. However, there are a number of sexual and romantic orientations and gender identities that are rarely if ever recognized or discussed. This presentation will give an overview of some of these lesser-known identities, such as the asexual and aromantic spectrums; pansexuality; intersex; and non-binary and genderqueer identities, as well as the issues that most affect these communities.

H10442: Military History through Power Metal: 5 Sabaton songs and the stories behind them
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Shain Neumeier

If you like metal and you like history, Sabaton is the band for you, and this is your class. Since 1999, the Swedish metal band has written songs about military history, including World Wars I and II and the Great Northern War in Europe. In this presentation, we will listen to 5 songs from the band (with lyrics provided), and I will discuss the historical events and figures behind the songs, such as King Charles XII ("Carolus Rex") of Sweden, the Russian "Night Witches" in World War II, and the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I.


Prerequisites
You should like metal music (or at least not hate the sound of it).

H10359: Introduction to Indonesian
Difficulty: *

With 250 million people, Indonesia is poised to take over the world at SOME point. Come and learn a little bit about the warm archipelago! By the end of the session you will be able to count to 100(!), introduce yourself and hold a simple conversation.

It may not be as useful to know as Spanish or as beautiful as French, but after this class you will have a skill most of your friends won't!

H10351: An Introduction to Latin Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Peter Klapes

This course will cover the basics of the Latin language--noun declensions, verb conjugations, vocabulary, etc.

H10260: Friendship and Curiosity: From Plato to Tolstoy
Difficulty: **
Teachers: yc Yu

What is a friend? Why are friends friends?
What are you curious about? What do you think is the answer? How do we find answers?
To answer these questions, we read chapters of Plato's $$\textit{Lysis}$$, $$\textit{Republic}$$, Tolstoy's $$\textit{War and Peace}$$, etc. and hope to find clues.


Prerequisites
Willingness to proactively participate in discussion and ask questions.

H10485: Introduction to Morphology Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sophie Mori

Come learn about morphemes, the smallest meaningful unit of language! We will see how these units combine to form words in various languages. If time allows, we will also solve some simple morphology problems!


Prerequisites
Logical reasoning

H10446: Abridged Chinese-Japanese-Korean History
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sin Kim

From the beginning of history to 19th century, we will blaze our way through the history of China, Japan, and Korea. May contain many bad jokes.

H10316: Slam Poetry
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Krysten Gouveia

What is it inside of us that enables us to speak so freely, fluently, and easily? When you step on a stage to preform a poem, you not only give away a piece of yourself, but your audience accepts that piece and together you co-create something wonderful. This class is to teach students how to form a slam poem, what goes into a slam poem, how to perform with your body, and how to preform with your voice. We will be creating our own slam poems in class and you will have the opportunity to share.

H10467: Becoming a Leader!
Difficulty: *

In this course, you will learn how to become an effective leader. Ever dreamed of being a president?! Will you have a big company in the future? Do you want to be an example to your peers? All these questions will be answered. This course will prepare you to become a leader in whatever you wish to apply in. I look forward to sharing my leadership secrets with you all.

H10352: An Introduction to Modern Greek
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Peter Klapes

This course will offer an introduction to the Modern Greek language. You will get the chance to learn basic vocabulary, and common sayings.

H10404: Ender's Game and Good and Evil
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Kaylee Brent

Do you want to figure out what makes a person good? Do you like science fiction? Do you like philosophical discussions? Come discuss good and evil in intent and deed (and myriad other philosophical questions that may come up), through the lens of Ender's Game by Orson Scott Card.


Prerequisites
Have read Ender's Game

H10353: Does God exist? Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Peter Klapes

In this discussion-based course, we will explore the different arguments regarding the existence of God.

H10479: Melding Music and Stories Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Josh Shaine

We will listen to and discuss various pieces of music adapted from or created for story telling. Pieces such as Peter and the Wolf by Prokofiev, Rick Wakeman's Journey to the Center of the Earth, The King of Elfland's Daughter, and others will be shared.

Do you have a favorite to share?


Prerequisites
Appreciation for a variety of musical types.

H10345: Origins of Writing Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yale Zussman

We will follow the evolution of writing from the earliest plain tokens through to the development of cuneiform. Students will take notes on a clay tablet and will conclude by writing their names in cuneiform. Tablets will be fired and have an expected half-life of about a million years.

H10440: What the @#$% is the mythical "Reasonable Person"?!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lydia Brown

U.S. jurisprudence (a fancy word for legal thought, tradition, and practice) is obsessed with this mythical half-unicorn half-phoenix "reasonable person." In case after case (well, at least the ones covered so far in the first year of law school), judges comment about whether someone's actions would match the actions of "the reasonable person," and then they decide which person wins and which person is royally screwed. For this class, you'll get a brief overview of what this supposedly means in the legal context, as well as how it connects to what we know as case law.

And then we'll get to discussing the fun questions: Why does the reasonable person standard matter? Where does it come from? And most importantly, who gets to count as the reasonable person? Does gender matter? What about age? Knowledge or experience? Physical or mental disability? Culture? How does the current state of the law account for our many differences and push back on the ages-old "reasonable person"? Should the next movements forward in law abolish this standard, and if so, what should we replace it with?


Prerequisites
A very, super, extremely basic understanding of the U.S. legal system. (Do you know what a court is? Do you know what a case is? Have you ever heard of "trials" or "guilty" or "lawsuits"? Yeah, like the millions of other American children forcibly exposed to courtroom/legal dramas, crime shows, and awfully cheesy lawyer ads, you're probably fine.) No briefcase, giant casebook of doom, or necktie required.

H10462: Learn Elvish!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ryker Reed

Ever wanted to speak Elvish? Write Dwarvish runes? Now is your chance! Come take this interactive class and learn the basics of spoken and written Elvish! This class will focus on the Elvish language Sindarin, and we will also cover a bit of the other languages, such as the Elvish language Quenya and the Dwarvish language. We will practice speaking Elvish and also how to write the Elvish script and Dwarvish runes. No prior knowledge necessary, just enthusiasm!


Prerequisites
None, but if you took this class last year, it will be the same material.

H10240: Intro to Film Analysis
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sarah Wharton

Just like we analyze books we read, we can look at films with a critical eye. We'll be watching the delightful 45-minute silent film Sherlock Jr. (1924) and discussing it afterward. Movie snacks will be provided!


Prerequisites
An open mind and a love for movies!

H10395: Notable Notaphily Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ryuga Hatano

Ever wondered what goes into those pieces of paper that we call banknotes? Come learn more about the art, the history, and the technology behind the money used in countless transactions across the world.


Prerequisites
Bring any denomination of United States paper currency.

H10475: Hungarian for Dummies Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Melinda Szabo

Are you interested in being able to speak a language that is unlike any other (maybe Finnish, but not really)? Come to Hungarian for dummies and learn about one of the most complicated grammars and how to pronounce strange new phonemes from a Hungarian-speaking MIT student. Besides the basics of language, we are also going to play games and learn about Hungarian culture.

H10477: Science Fiction vs. Fantasy Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Josh Shaine

Where are the borders between Science Fiction and Fantasy? Is there such a thing as Science Fantasy? What works dwell on the border between them?

Bring your ideas and recommendations! We'll see if we can come to any conclusions.


Prerequisites
Love of books. Opinions and willingness to listen to the opinions of others.

H10425: "For Your Own Good": Social Injustice in Medical Treatment
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Shain Neumeier

People whose bodies and brains are considered "abnormal" have long been targets of discrimination and mistreatment -- even, or especially, in the medical world. This presentation will discuss how this has played out historically; how it continues today; what's being done about it, and what remains to be done. This will include topics such as the historical use of institutionalization and human experimentation; behavior modification programs for teenagers and people with disabilities; weight discrimination in health care; forced surgery on intersex children; "conversion therapy" for LGBTQ people; and denial of transgender health care.


Prerequisites
Some knowledge of social justice movements and concepts (such as disability rights/neurodiversity, fat acceptance, LGBTQ/queer rights, racial justice and intersectionality) may be useful, but they are definitely not required.

H10492: You might be richer than you think! Income inequality in the 21st Century Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jeyshri Sundaram

Do you think you're rich? No? In this class we will use economic tools to analyze just how wealthy we are compared to the rest of the world. We will be learning about other countries such as China and a little bit about developmental economics

H10325: How to Save the World
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Francesca Majluf

No, there isn't a giant meteor approaching. But destruction could still be imminent. Come learn how you can impact the future of your planet.

H10355: Ten Ways to Say the Letter "A"
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Miguel Young

The human vocal tract is really amazing: think of all the sounds you can make when you talk! In this class, we'll talk about phonetics, a branch of linguistics that studies how sounds are made. You'll learn what happens in your mouth when you say "I like cats", why vowels are so complicated, and how to write your name in the International Phonetic Alphabet!

Note: we'll be putting our fingers in our mouths to feel how sounds are made, but you don't have to if you don't want to.

H10266: How to Pretend You Speak a Foreign Language
Difficulty: **

First step to looking like you know what you're doing: look like you know what you're saying. Come learn how to pull that off, whether you're traveling the world or fooling friends!

H10465: Languages of Middle Earth
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ryker Reed

Love Lord of the Rings? Ever wondered where all the names in Middle Earth come from? Come find out more about the complex linguistic systems underlying Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings series. For instance, did you know that Tolkien was a linguist and actually invented an entire Elvish language before even writing the Lord of the Rings books? Learn about some of the real world languages that inspired and influenced Tolkien’s invented languages. And find out more about the history of Middle Earth and how its languages came to be what they are now.


Prerequisites
None, if you've taken this class last year, it will be the same material.

H10319: Babies Are Smarter Than You - When it Comes to Words Full!
Difficulty: **

Googoo. Gaagaa. Googoo gaagaa? Googoo gaagaa! Gaaaaaaa!!!
It takes 5 months for babies to go from incoherent babbling to producing their first words. You still don’t know how to ask to go to the bathroom in Spanish even though you’ve been learning it for the past three years. Give babies their well-deserved credit by learning about words, which are arbitrary combinations of form (sound in spoken language) and meaning. Maybe we’ll show you cute pictures. Let’s talk about words!

H10331: Understanding Human Diversity - Leveling the Playing Field
Difficulty: *

Unveil the ordinary social institutions that quietly channel wealth and opportunity, giving different groups vastly unequal life chances.


Prerequisites
none

H10430: How to Torture Your Characters 101 Full!
Difficulty: **

You: Love writing fiction. Flash fiction. Short fiction. Novellas. Novels. Text-based roleplay. Comics. Graphic Novels. Fanfic. Possibly edgy or experimental. Some experience and past interest in creative writing of some kind.

Us: A civil rights lawyer and a law student. Activists. Gluttons for good food. Easily distracted by kittens and dogs. Long time text-based roleplayers. One of us a novelist.

What We'll Do: In this class, we'll talk about motivation, cultural context, political intrigue, relationship angst (and not just THOSE kinds of relationships), trauma, and identity. You will learn how to develop realistic, compelling characters full of depth. (At least in theory. This IS Spark after all.)

And then you will learn how to torture your characters -- that is, how to create and sustain personal and interpersonal conflict in your fiction, and how to make the story quintessentially readable and enjoyable, and ideally, relatable.


Prerequisites
Open to discussion of potentially dark topics. Content notes provided at beginning of class or by email in advance to student. Some experience (even totally informal!) with writing fiction strongly encouraged; this is not a completely 101 class despite the title. Also, the desire to be a evil creator lording over your small internal laboratory -- we mean, fictional creation.

H10476: Philosophy of the Mind
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Jennifer Williams

Is your mind just an app that runs on a meat machine? We know where the mind lives (inside the brain!), but what is it? In this class we will survey what contemporary philosophers and scientists have to say about what the mind is, what it does, and why we still don't know for sure. Topics include: The Chinese Room, The Turing Test, Machine Consciousness, The Twin Earth Paradox, The Stroop Effect and other exciting problems.


Prerequisites
An open mind!

H10412: So Finite: Flash Fiction
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Julia Arnous

What is flash fiction? Who writes it? Why write it? We will treat these and other questions on this exciting form, and read some short shorts by literary greats from near and far. Then you'll get a chance to try your hand at it!


Life Sciences

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L10334: Microbiome 101: What's In Your Poo?
Difficulty: **

Trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi live in the human body, that are collectively known as the microbiome. Research on the microbiome is exploding; we're just beginning to learn about how bacteria may affect the way we smell, eat, and maybe even the way we behave. Come learn about this fascinating ecosystem inside our bodies, and learn about how bacteria in poo-- yes, poo-- can save lives.

L10329: Intro to Drug Design for Human Diseases
Difficulty: ****
Teachers: John Szeto

Ever wonder how drugs were designed to combat human diseases? How can a drug fight cancer? Why aren't there cures to some diseases? Why do side effects occur, and how can drug design help avoid them? In the future, how could nanotechnology, biotic and microbiome therapy, and stem cells play into the equation of treating disease?

We will take a look at the process of drug design and development, highlighting some of the current models for disease, and how they have helped shape drug design, as well as what may come in the future of drug design. In order to do this, many basics will be covered, including structures of cells, receptor theory, signal transduction, metabolic pathways, gene expression, bio-molecules, and drug-like molecules. Disease models will be investigated including cancer and other chronic diseases. The idea is to spark interest in the many different aspects of this field, while placing an emphasis on the biological properties and fundamentals. You will gather a better understanding of drug design basics and maybe one day you could apply those principles to help design a revolutionary drug that has little to no side effects and cures a human disease!

L10428: Creepy Crawlies of the Deep Sea
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Clio Macrakis

In the deep sea far from any sunlight, the oceans are teeming with life. Explore the weird and fascinating organisms that live in the deep ocean and why they look the way they do.

L10339: Save a Life, Save a Heart: Learn CPR!
Difficulty: *

Learn how to save a life with CPR. IT is a simple technique that increases the chance of survival after a cardiac arrest by up to 300%.

L10291: The Scoop on Space Poop: How Astronauts Go Potty
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ceili Burdhimo

Curious about how astronauts go to the bathroom in space? Ever wonder how they did it during Apollo or how they're going to do it in the future? Come to my class to learn all about potties in space.

L10293: Science of Menstruation
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Dawn Truong

Want to become a doctor? Interested in developmental biology? Have questions about menstruation? Come learn about the science of it all! We will engage in a judgement-free exploration of the science behind menstruation.

L10460: Insects: Classification and Camouflage
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Chelsea Voss

Is that an orchid, or a mantis? What's the difference between a bug and a beetle? Why does EVERYTHING seem to want to pretend to be an ant? Why do bees cooperate with each other like that?

Come learn about insects, the fascinating animals with more than a million species on Earth and a majority of ALL the species we know about!

This class will present a whirlwind tour of insects of all sorts. You'll learn how each group is related and how to recognize each group's unique features, as well as some random cool things about camouflage and parasitism among insects.

At the end, you'll apply your newly-learned identification skills to identify some real insects!

L10387: Crime Investigation with DNA in 50 Minutes
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Jordan Hines

Today's biotechnology makes crime investigation a simple procedure. Come learn how to use a few small pieces of DNA to identify a person! If we have time, we'll talk about how this technology can be applied to other problems in biology.


Prerequisites
Knowing what DNA is would be helpful, but we'll review that briefly.

L10307: Under the Sea: Octopus Intelligence
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elise Michaels

What's it like to be an octopus?
In this class, we'll cover what an octopus is, and what makes them special. Why are they considered so intelligent? How do we measure intelligence in non-human animals?

L10407: How To Train Your Elephant
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Tyler Lerner

Have you ever wondered how zookeepers take care of animals like elephants? How about how they train them? We'll talk about elephant care, from keeping them healthy to keeping them happy, as well as how they (and other animals) are trained. By the time you leave the class, you'll have first hand experience in animal* training!

*Due to logistical reasons, humans will be used in place of elephants

L10368: Bizarre Biology Facts
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Joanna Sands

Dung beetles use the Milky Way to navigate. Polar bears have black skin. Sloths can achieve speeds of up to 20mph in the right conditions. Chameleons change color to show emotions. Llamas are closely related to camels. There are monkeys native to South America. Some of these facts are false; can you tell which ones? In this class I'll tell you about lots of crazy new findings in biology, and I'll let you decide which ones are true.

L10282: Marine Biology and Climate Change
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Clio Macrakis

We will cover a range of marine biology topics including the biology, chemistry, and physics behind different ecosystems. Marine biology is fun! Unfortunately, climate change is not. Learn about how climate change is affecting the oceans and what people are doing about it.


Prerequisites
Some previous knowledge of climate change will be helpful

L10357: Life After Dinosaurs: The Cenozoic Era
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Mary Spanjers

The K-T extinction wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. We all know that, but then what? Ancient Egypt? Nope, the vast majority of the Cenozoic Era. Sometimes called "The Age of Mammals", the Cenozoic represented a major increase in biodiversity, because with giant reptiles out of the way, survival gets way easier. Come learn about what happens after dinosaurs. After all, a lot can happen in 65 million years.

L10437: Can I Cell You About Molecular Biology?
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Songela Chen

Ever wondered what's really happening under the microscope? Come learn about the cells that make up your body! We'll cover some topics in cellular and molecular biology, with time for bonus info based on your interests - possible topics include the brain, diseases, anatomy, vitamins, or another topic of your choosing. This is the story of how you work!

L10337: The Science of Chocolate
Difficulty: **

Do you love chocolate? Ever wonder why chocolate melts in your mouth? Or gets dry and crumbly when it's old? Join us to discover the science and engineering behind chocolate! Learn how to go from a cocoa bean to a truffle and discover phase diagrams, nucleation, and a little bit of history while you're at it. Ample chocolate will be provided.

L10495: Hacking Flavor
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Abby Noyce

Why do some things taste good and some things taste bad? Why are all the delicious things "bad for you"? How does your brain know what food tastes like? Why are some people picky about tastes, and some people aren't? Can you change the way your taste buds work? (Hint: Yes, and we will try it!)

In this class, we'll learn about how the sense of taste works, from your tongue and nose to your brain. We'll measure whether we are "super-tasters," and we'll experiment with miracle berry, a fruit that changes how your taste buds work, and makes sour things taste sweet!

L10356: Don't Touch the King Cobra: An Exploration of Venomous Creatures
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Mary Spanjers

Venom is one of the most incredible adaptations in the animal kingdom. The ability of such a wide variety of animals to use chemical warfare to kill their prey in such an exact way is one of the most exceptional examples of natural selection. We'll explore the topic by grouping various types of venom and get a better idea of how they work inside the body. When it comes to venomous creatures, one thing's clear: don't touch the King Cobra!

L10315: Ecopsychology Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Krysten Gouveia

Are humans the greatest threat to themselves and the natural world? Why are we pushing away life that is so innately combed into every fiber of our beings. In this class, we will explore our interrelatedness with others and the natural world, and how we as humans can place more emphasis on tomorrow's greater needs than today's tiny pleasures.

"Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. The earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth." - Chief Seattle Suquamish tribe.


Lunch

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L10498: Lunch Period
Difficulty: None
Teachers:

Enjoy a break for lunch with your friends! Please register for at least one lunch period on each day of the program.

L10497: Lunch Period
Difficulty: None
Teachers:

Enjoy a break for lunch with your friends! Please register for at least one lunch period on each day of the program.


Mathematics

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M10310: Point-Set Topology
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

People often think of topology as what surfaces can be smoothly shaped into other surfaces. More generally, topology discusses continuous functions. We'll discuss what it means for a set to have topology, what it means for a function in a topological space to be continuous, and various attributes that a topological space can have.


Prerequisites
Be familiar with basic notions of sets and logic (which you've probably been exposed to if you've done other math Spark classes). E.g., "there exists", "for all," what it means to have "an element of" a set, unions, intersections, etc.

M10255: May the Odds Be Ever in Your Favor
Difficulty: **

Have you ever wanted to learn how to rip off your friends (completely legitimately)? This class will teach you the mathematics behind becoming rich and powerful (okay, maybe it won't do quite that). But it will lay down the mathematical foundation that you will need so that you can challenge your friends to bets in which the odds be ever in your favor. During this course, we'll expose you to discrete math tools including probability, expected value, counting, and more through fun and interactive demos. We'll show you cool mathematical tricks that you can use to impress your friends (and maybe make a few bucks in the process).


Prerequisites
Basic probability knowledge helpful

M10390: The Good Ideas of Fermat
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Ray Hua Wu

Despite having earned quite a reputation (and arguably deservedly so) of dubious means of mathematical justification, Pierre de Fermat still brought to the mathematical world very important ideas and tools, merely often unjustified. Today, we look at these tools, most notably, his Little Theorem: not his Last Theorem, his Little Theorem.


Prerequisites
Algebra 1

M10443: Winning
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Saranesh Prembabu

In this course you will learn how to win.

Game theory is a useful tool for analyzing all sorts of strategic activities, from childhood games to nuclear war. We will learn how to mathematically understand what constitutes good game play, and then apply this surprisingly simple but powerful logic to devising strategies to (almost) guarantee winning at various two-player games. The focus will be on optimal strategies for impartial combinatorial games, but we will study other types of games as well.


Prerequisites
Be able to think logically. Knowledge of the binary system or probability may be useful for some parts of the course. No prior game theory knowledge is expected.

M10480: The Mathematics of Risk
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Rogers Epstein

Ever wonder how exactly casinos know they will make money in the long run? Have you ever struggled to make an interesting and fair game? Why do people make decisions that go against what the math says? In this class, we will introduce the notion of expected value and standard deviation in the context of games. Then, we will look at examples of how these measures intuitively describe systems, and sometimes result in strange paradoxes...


Prerequisites
None, as long as you're comfortable with some computation.

M10456: Cryptography Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Gaurav Singh

Cryptography is an exciting tool to communicate with others while controlling what information other people can get. We will start with basic cryptography, and talk about some of the exciting directions it is moving in.


Prerequisites
It will be useful to have some idea about what cryptography is, but is not required.

M10305: Counting Past Infinity
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jason Gross

Did you ever have arguments about whether or not $$\infty + 1 = \infty$$? Come learn how to count past infinity, graphically!


Prerequisites
You should know how to count, and be open to learning new ways of counting.

M10372: Cryptography: Making and breaking secret codes Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Marcus Boorstin

Ever wondered how secret codes are made, or wanted to write a secret note to your friends? In this class, we'll look at some ways of making codes, practice sending secret messages, and then talk about breaking them.

M10304: Uncountability of the reals
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jason Gross

The set of real numbers is uncountable. No matter how you order them, if you try to count them one by one, you will miss some.

M10491: Codes and Cryptography
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lisa Ho

For Mary Queen of Scots, a broken cipher meant her execution. For the Allies during WWII, a broken Enigma code meant lives saved and war significantly shorter. When you can read your enemies' private communication, you know what they're thinking and what they're planning--and such information is never a bad thing. Come learn how to send messages that your friends won't be able to read--and even better, how to break the secret messages that other people have sent! We'll cover a few different kinds of ciphers, including Caesar shifts, substitution ciphers, and the Vignere cipher. Most of this will take the form of you all working in groups trying to break code; there will be hints if you need them.

M10422: Number Theory
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Thomas Carr

Come learn about the oldest and most beautiful branch of mathematics! Number theory is all about finding deep patterns under the surface of the natural numbers, and in this class we will examine the most mysterious numbers of them all: the primes! We will start with a 2000-year-old proof that the prime numbers go on forever, and then spend the rest of the class trying to unravel some of their deep mysteries. You will also learn about some famous prime number problems that are yet to be solved - maybe you will be the one who finally comes up with the proof!


Prerequisites
The only prerequisite for this course is the attitude that math is fun and interesting!

M10436: Fun with Pigeonhole Principle
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Yoa Clifton

If you have n holes containing, kn+1 pigeons, then you must have at least one hole with at least k+1 pigeons.

So what? We will show how to apply this seemingly simple statement to a plethora of exciting problems.


Prerequisites
Familiarity with elementary counting and probability, modular arithmetic. It would help if you can understand the statement in the course description, though I will go over it in class.

M10439: Cellular Automata Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Dylan Hendrickson

A cellular automaton is a grid of cells that changes according to simple rules, but can have complicated behavior. The most famous one is Conway's Game of Life. We'll discuss 1- and 2- dimensional automata, look at cool patterns they can produce, and see just how powerful they can be.


Prerequisites
Know how to convert numbers between decimal and binary.

M10309: Conceptual Calculus
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

Learn what it means to take the limit, the derivative, or the integral! Also learn how to apply these concepts in some pretty cool ways. Note: this class will be almost entirely conceptual - very few actual derivatives will be taken, although some of the more interesting ones may be used.


Prerequisites
A willingness to think about abstract concepts and an understanding of what a variable is (e.g. be able to solve 5x=10 for x).

M10292: Pascal's Triangle
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Thomas Skinner

Learn about the amazing properties of Pascal's Triangle, a seemingly pointless pattern of adding numbers that turns out to have a variety of cool applications!

M10347: Geobashing 101 Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Ahaan Rungta

"Bashing is a harsh, gratuitous, prejudicial attack on a person, group, or subject. Literally, bashing is a term meaning to hit or assault, but when it is used as a suffix, or in conjunction with a noun indicating the subject being attacked, it is normally used to imply that the act is motivated by bigotry." -- Wikipedia

Geobashing, on the other hand, is not only acceptable but many times helpful. It is a tool which, when used excessively, is harmful but when used in moderation, is magic. In this class, we will study the art of "bashing" geometry problems of all levels and talk about the pros and cons of taking this ruthless path.


Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of geometry, such as properties of rectangles, circles, and lines, and basic knowledge of the Cartesian coordinate plane (for example, you should know how to graph points and lines on the xy-plane). If you don't even know what I mean by "bashing," that's fine!

M10332: Chaotic Reduction: Play the Math Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: James Koppel

Chaotic Reduction is a computer game that turns mathematical problems into puzzles. We will study famous problems such as the Post Correspondence Problem and Conway's Soldiers in computer game form, and then make our own levels!

M10421: How big is infinity?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Rikhav Shah

Are there more even numbers or odd numbers? More irrational numbers or rational numbers? Come learn what 'infinity' means and how not all
infinities are created equally.


Prerequisites
None

M10311: Symmetry Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

You've surely learned about things which are "symmetric" - which you can do something to and they look the same (e.g., rotating a square by 90 degrees). In this class, we'll discuss how to formalize that idea using the abstract algebra idea of a group, and some specific examples. We'll also discuss how continuous symmetries lead to "conserved quantities" in physics (and what this means).

M10362: Continued Fractions
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Victor Lopez

In school you've probably learned about fractions. Most of the time they probably look like this: $$\frac{2}{3}$$. But what happens if you keep going, and get fractions that never end, like this: $$\frac{2}{3+ \frac{2}{3+ \frac{2}{3 ...}}}$$?

Come learn what happens in this class!


Prerequisites
Ideally students would be familiar with basic algebra.

M10429: Calculate Pi with Trains!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Ziv Scully

It turns out that you can calculate pi to very high accuracy by bouncing a small train and a big train into a wall. Come on a journey through Extra-Nice Physics Land (where there's no friction and all collisions are perfectly elastic) to see how it works!


Prerequisites
Given the equation of a line, you should know how to find its slope. We'll also use the Pythagorean theorem.

M10397: mathmathmathmathmathmath
Difficulty: ***

There's so much awesome math to do that we couldn't pick just one thing to teach. Join us for a class of small snippets of cool math! Bring your own questions or be ready to choose your favorite topics from our list, and we'll see how much cool math we can show you in 50 minutes!


Prerequisites
Ability and willingness to think abstractly. Familiarity with basic algebra would also be helpful.

M10414: The Math of Guarding Things: The Art Gallery Problem
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yonah Borns-Weil

Mathematician Paul Erdös talked a lot about "The Book," where God supposedly kept perfect proofs to all mathematical theorems. Us mathematicians can't claim to have seen this book, but we do generally agree on some proofs that would definitely be there. A popular choice is Steve Fisk's solution to "The Art Gallery Problem."

Basically, given a polygonal art gallery, we want to put guards at the vertices so they can see the entire interior. How many guards do we need? The answer and reasoning behind it are just about the coolest things I've seen, and as an MIT math major, that's saying something.

If there's time, I'll also talk about generalizations, like art galleries in space.


Prerequisites
Despite the math being only about 40 years old, this class has no prerequisites beyond basic geometry.

M10346: What's in a Sum?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ahaan Rungta

When being asked to evaluate "a sum," we might just think of addition. But what if you have to add up 2014 terms? You need a trick! And when you need a trick, you write stuff as formulas. Sometimes, you don't even care what "stuff" is, but you just want to find a sum. We write things in what we call _closed forms_, a fancy name for a useful formula we can sum on.

You can find out here how to do this. You should not take this class if you already know how to compute sums such as $$ \displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \dfrac {1}{k^2} $$ or $$ \displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{2014} \left( k^2 + 2k + 1 \right) $$. In fact, if you don't even know what that means, you should come to this class!


Prerequisites
Comfortable with regular algebra, such as expanding (x+1)(x+2)(x+3) or solving x^2 + 2x + 1 = 0.

M10300: How to Threaten People (Using Game Theory)
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Felix Sun

We all know that a threat is one of the most common ways to get someone to do something they don't want to do. But, how can you threaten someone in a way that actually gets results? And if you are threatened, what can you do about it? We will answer these questions using ideas from game theory and economics.

This class can be thought of as an introduction to competitive strategy, focusing on the threat, one of the most interesting and complex maneuvers available to competitors. You will learn the tools that world leaders, CEOs, and board game players alike use to make a strategy in the presence of hostile players.


Prerequisites
Basic algebra helpful. No prior experience with game theory assumed.

M10457: Fun with Invariants!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Yoa Clifton

An invariant is a quantity that remains unchanged throughout a repeated process. Let's see how we can use them to solve some cool problems!


Prerequisites
You should know modular arithmetic.

M10418: Complex Numbers and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Rikhav Shah

Is -1 really a number? How can you factor x^2-4? What about x^4+1? For what values of x does x^3=1? (hint, there are more than one). What is the square root of negative one? Come to find out!


Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of algebra

M10459: Arithmetic, Ancient Egyptian Style
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Chelsea Voss

This class will be a blast from the past.

Okay, sure, we're traveling back in time to learn about Ancient Egypt. But that's not the only time travel we'll be doing. In this class, we'll also be traveling back in time – to first grade.

Imagine that you are a young Ancient Egyptian scribe-to-be, going through the equivalent of Ancient Egyptian elementary school. You need to learn reading, writing, and ... arithmetic.

What happens when two separate cultures independently discover the ideas of mathematics? Are there other ways we can multiply numbers, and other ways we can think about decimals and fractions? The answer is yes, and the details are strange and fascinating!

Through a variety of hands-on exercises, we will cover how the Ancient Egyptians wrote down their numbers, carried out addition and subtraction, represented multiplication and division, and manipulated fractions.

Inspired by the book "Count Like an Egyptian" by David Reimer.


Prerequisites
None.

M10333: Finite Automata
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: James Koppel

Would you like to find patterns in text? Prove your program doesn't have an infinite loop? Monitor a nuclear reactor? Find structure in DNA?

In this class, you'll learn about finite automata. Finite automata, or "state machines" can be though of as just moving a marker between some states according to some simple rules, but their simplicity hides deep mathematics and allows you to manipulate them in interesting ways. We'll start with the basic definition and take you through the math and into some powerful applications.


Prerequisites
Should be comfortable thinking mathematically

M10340: Geometric Construction Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Keith Phuthi

A quick guide on how to construct simple shapes and curves such as polygons, parabolas, cycloids and many more using just a pair of compasses and a straight edge.


Prerequisites
None

M10433: A Piece of Pi
Difficulty: **

Wanna get ready for $$\pi$$ Day? Don't know how? Don't know what pi is? Come to this class and learn all you need to know about your favorite transcendental number. Covers basic properties of pi, how to generate pi, and its relation to larger mathematics. We will also cover other math-e-magical constants. You will be served pie at the end of class.


Prerequisites
Algebra

M10314: Name That Math!
Difficulty: ****
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

This is designed to be a class where I (try to) explain the kinds of things covered in just about every math class in college, both undergraduate and graduate school. The idea of this class is that you learn a bunch of basic words in an area of math that you can go google later, with some idea of which ones you find more interesting than others. Extra time (if any) will be spent actually explaining based on student curiosity.


Prerequisites
Familiarity with algebra; resistance to terminological whiplash as I try to explain what a different field of math talks about every five minutes.


Physical Sciences

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P10490: Intro to Climate Change
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elizabeth Berg

An introduction to climate change from multiple angles. We'll talk about what people mean when they say the planet is warming, and then discuss both scientific and policy ways to address it. Bring your questions and opinions!

P10321: Exoplanet Excavation
Difficulty: *

How can we discover exoplanets when they're so insanely hard to observe? We'll learn how, and also look at the current methods of discovering planets beyond our solar system and see exactly why these objects are so hard to confirm.

The class will also discuss what else we can deduce about these planets, why this science matters, and what the future is for the field.

P10496: Ultracold Atomic Physics Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sean Burchesky

Learn about the frontier of quantum mechanics research. We cool atoms very close to absolute zero to reveal their quantum nature. I will discuss some of the most puzzling experiments done with Ultracold atom systems.


Prerequisites
Interest in physics.

P10285: Sound, Waves, and Electricity
Difficulty: *
Teachers: John Gregg

What is sound made of? How do things work that make sound? We will explore this, as well as a lot of related questions in this fun, hands-on course. Fifth graders could understand everything here, but I guarantee seniors will learn something they didn't already know!

P10313: Hitchhiker's Guide to the Multiverse
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

In this class, we will explore three questions. One: What is a multiverse? Two: Why might we want to (or not want to) discuss a multiverse? Three: What are the kinds of multiverses that people talk about? Along the way, we will discuss topics in both modern physics and philosophy.

P10376: What is Superconductivity? Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sam Moore

Come learn about the basics of superconductivity! In this class, I will explain the basics behind a truly unique phenomenon in nature: in a superconductor, electrical current can flow forever!


Prerequisites
Interest in science and math. Knowledge of algebra (especially equations of lines) is helpful.

P10338: A Brief History of Time Keeping Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Hengyun Zhou

In this class we'll be talking about measuring time, starting from our ancestors, pendulum clocks and moving onto quartz clocks and atomic clocks. If time permits, we might even talk about how relativity comes into the picture and about the world's best clocks. Hopefully you'll be able to learn a lot about time in the least amount of time!

P10246: How Stars Die
Difficulty: ***

Explore the physics of the long lives and spectacular deaths of stars! Red giants, supernovas, pulsars, black holes, all of that cool stuff you've read about in sci fi novels! Class will focus mainly around general concepts, but may go into some light formula derivations.


Prerequisites
A basic understanding of classical mechanics, orbital motion and chemical processes will help you better understand the class but is in no way required.

P10469: How to Make Sense of Quantum Mechanics
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Taylor Sutton

Quantum mechanics is known for being weird - it says things that don't fit with the way we intuitively think about the world. What does it mean to say that an object can be in two places at once - or alive and dead at once? Why can't we know where something is and how fast it's moving?

In this class, we'll try to see why physicists came up with QM in the first place, and we'll try to understand how it works. We'll be mainly explaining things with words, not with math.


Prerequisites
It'd be helpful if you have some exposure to probability.

P10303: Your classical intuition is wrong!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jason Gross

Do you think you have a good grasp of physics? A good intuition for the physical world? Come learn about the predictions of quantum mechanics (and the experiments that validate these predictions) which violate your fundamental beliefs about the universe!

P10312: Quantum Mechanics Done Right Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aaron Dunbrack

I'm going to try to teach quantum mechanics in a way that is both completely accurate and completely comprehensible - sweeping a few details of calculations under the rug, of course. We'll begin by discussing what the world "really is" in quantum mechanics, then interpret that in terms of words like "superposition" and "entanglement." I'll also try to discuss some more advanced topics, like "decoherence," "Hilbert space" and "unitarity." Finally, depending on time, I'll expand on different interpretations of quantum mechanics, including hidden variable, collapse, many-worlds, and information-theoretic formulations.


Prerequisites
If you try to understand what a "vector" is beforehand, that will be helpful to your intuition, but I'll go over everything necessary.

P10366: The Many Transformations of Transition Metals Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aofei Liu

Transition metals are cool. You probably know that they have multiple oxidation states and form compounds with pretty colours. But they're way cooler than that! Come learn about (a small subset of) random things transition metals can do!


Prerequisites
a love of chemistry is all you need :)

P10379: Introduction to Astronomy
Difficulty: **

Ever wanted to know what's out there or up there or really just *around*? Come to this introduction to astronomy course. You'll learn about the constellations, stars, our galaxy, and all sorts of other super cool stuff, with some math and physics thrown in!


Walk-in Activity

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W10349: Chess!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ahaan Rungta

Come play chess! If you need an intro to chess, we can do that for you as well.

W10320: Knitting & Tea
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Megan Goodell

Come drink tea while learning to knit, learning new knitting techniques or stitches, or working on a project you've already started! All skill levels welcome. :)

W10382: Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joanna Sands

We'll make you some really cool ice cream.

W10399: Learn the Chinese Yo-Yo!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Mikayla Murphy

The Chinese Yo-Yo, also known as Diabolo, has been a popular circus prop for many years. Come learn how to play with this fun toy that also is an important part of Chinese heritage!

W10270: IKEA? I-Keel-Ya

Do you never read the instructions? This class is for you! Come build IKEA furniture with only a photograph of the intended product as your guide.

W10447: Poi!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elizabeth Mittmann

Attach weights to the end of strings and spin them around - what patterns can you make? Introductory poi techniques will be taught.

W10365: Paper Airplanes!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aofei Liu

Come fold paper airplanes with me using old ESP flyers! I'll provide some diagrams for some cool plane/glider designs. (Be sure to clean up after yourself!)

W10486: Learn to Play Ukulele
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Chan

Join us in learning to strum on the ukulele to your favorite songs! We have lots of ukuleles for you to try out. For students with little to no experience, or who just want to come and jam.

W10488: Chess Variants
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elizabeth Berg

Monster chess, antichess, bughouse. There are a lot of games you can play with an 8x8 grid and a set of chess pieces. Come by and play anything you'd like ...except traditional chess! I'll bring instructions for common chess variants, but feel free to make up your own rules too!

W10363: Mahjong
Difficulty: **
Teachers: George Liu-Krason

Mahjong is a multiplayer tile game originating from Asia. It is a game that requires skill and strategic thinking but also involves an element of luck. All skill levels are welcome whether you're new
to the game or have been playing for a long time.

W10370: Sporcle
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Margaret Sands

Come take quizzes with other students on topics you suggest! (Personal favorites range from Avatar the Last Airbender to K-pop)

W10438: Juggling
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Martin Schneider

Want to learn how to do basic juggling with three balls? Come join us!

W10494: Games and Cards All Day Every Day
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joanna Sands

Come play cards and board games in Lobby 13.


Miscellaneous

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X10294: Operations Management
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

This class will introduce students to the equations behind running a successful manufacturing and/or supply chain operation. Topics covered include capacity, inventory, economic order quantity, the Newsvendor model, safety stock, and replenishment policies.

X10286: Psychology of Happiness
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

Many teens think they'll be happy if they get into a top choice college or if they get a new phone. They assume that a bad grade, a breakup, or a broken bone will make them miserable.

However, psychologists who study happiness have learned that happiness is more like a skill that can be acquired and needs constant practice than a state of being.

In this session, we'll review some of the basics of what happiness psychologists have discovered and we'll practice some happiness-increasing techniques. We won't need a million dollars or a new smart phone: all we'll use are a paper and pen.

X10472: Woven Paper Fish Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ju Chulakadabba

Have you ever seen paper fish? Like the one making from only two stripes of paper?

Come join us making Thai Woven Paper Fish!!!

Within 50 minutes, you will learn Thai culture through paper fish. I actually mean PAPER FISH :)

X10330: Nonsense!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Megan Belzner

Explore words like "antidisestablishmentarianism" and sentences like those in Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky" or Dr. Seuss's "Fox in Socks". Along the way you'll learn about many of the fascinating properties of language and get a chance to create some "nonsense" of your very own!

X10380: Developing Your Inner Strength Some Tools and Tricks for Managing Hard Times
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Patricia Craig

Every person has times in their life when it is really tough. Whether a grandparent just died, or parents are getting divorced, or not fitting in at school - - - life can get really tough. This course will provide some helpful hints on managing those painful periods. The hints are drawn from a number of books the teacher has read on the subject and her own experiences.

X10297: Interview Workshop
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

Learn what to wear, say, and do before, during, and after an interview. Format will consist of a 20-minute lecture followed by a 30-minute workshop. Formal dress not required.

X10367: Advanced Knitting Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Corinn Herrick

Do you know how to knit and purl but want to take things to the next level? In this class we'll briefly talk about some more advanced topics in knitting, for instance:
* How to pick the right yarn for your project.
* Cabling
* Colorwork
* Shakerknitting
* Texture patterns
* Knitting twisted
* Openwork/lace knitting
* Finishing your work (weaving in loose ends and blocking)
* Seams
* Handling dropped stitches
* Increases and decreases

Exact topics will be determined based on student interest. Bring your own project if you'd like because most of the class will be hands-on practicing the topics we learn.


Prerequisites
Must be able to knit and purl comfortably. Bonus if you already know some of the topics on the topics list. A survey will be sent to the class before Spark and we'll choose topics that students aren't already familiar with but are ready to learn.

X10361: conspiracy theories! Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: alyssa smith

with the election season well upon us (for medium-sized values of "well upon us"), the conspiracy theories are flying right and left. as it should be, because conspiracy theories are an important part of the American political process or something. we'll talk about why conspiracy theories are appealing, why conspiracy theories take hold, and what makes an effective conspiracy theory.

X10392: Mini BRAIN WORLD CUP Full!
Difficulty: **

Compete in a homemade imitation of a Japanese game show which centers on frivolous tests of ingenuity. Prove that you have more obscure knowledge than your friends, or that the judges like you better, we're not sure which.

X10444: 101 Ways to Make Cookies
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Joey Muller

Have a passion for cooking? Artistic perfection? Eating? Join this class and learn how to follow a recipe, avoid burning your kitchen down, and importantly make tasty deserts. Impress your friends with the things you'll create, and satisfy your midnight cravings! Are you hungry yet?

X10478: Logic Games Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Josh Shaine

We'll try to introduce you to some logic games you don't already know and give you a chance to play them with each other. Come have fun!


Prerequisites
A desire to learn and play games. Sounds tough, huh?

X10471: Self Defense: "We're not saying we're ninjas... we're just saying no one has ever seen a ninja and us in the same room." Full!
Difficulty: **

Ever wanted to feel more like a ninja?... Us too. However, that takes years of training. What we can offer you however is fifty minutes of self defense training! Learn to defend against common grabs, holds, and jumps. Learn response techniques in dangerous situations. Learn skills we hope you will never have to use!
Both instructors of this course have trained in martial arts for over fifteen years. We will provide a safe and friendly environment to learn self defense in.

X10426: Marhaban Bikum! or, Who Wants to Learn Some Arabic?
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Lydia Brown

I spent the last four-six years (arguable either way) cramming Modern Standard Arabic and two dialects into my brainspace, including a stint in Jordan. Ever wanted to know how to swear at p -- er, make small talk in Arabic? Come to this class and I will spit some of it up for you! You will learn how to write in the Arabic alphabet, how to sound out unfamiliar words, and how to say some useful basic phrases -- if we're lucky, you'll even progress to basic conversation and then you can go home and impress your friends and family with your ability to correctly pronounce all of those words every newscaster totally butchers!


Prerequisites
Willingness to potentially embarrass yourself in front of a roomful of people. Ability to make weird sounds with your throat. Also, a throat.

X10381: Youth Can Move The World
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Munis Safajou

Do you notice certain patterns or trends where you live? Do you think about how you can be a part of the change?
We'll talk about how to join the globally developed social and economic development initiative which is now called the Junior Youth Empowerment Program.
It began some thirty years ago in a number of countries around the world and its purpose is to empower young people to contribute effectively to the advancement of civilization.
There are probably people around you who are involved and we'd love to meet you!

X10354: How to Olympics
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Kelsey Becker

Every four years, nations from around the globe gather to go head to head in physical feats that amaze the world. Learn about the 42 disciplines that compose these games including rules and who to watch in a rapid fire format. Think about how cool you'll be when you explain the intricacies of handball, rhythmic gymnastics, and synchronized swimming (along with sports that people actually care about) to all of your friends this summer during Rio 2016.

X10247: Call of Cthulhu Tabletop RPG
Difficulty: **

You run terrified down an old dusty hallway as a dark being not of this world chases just behind you. You clutch a spellbook and turn to face the creature, looking into its flat yellow eyes as you yell the incantation. As the light dances from your fingertips, you just hope it'll be enough. You feel your mind slipping further and further into insanity.

Come play a one-shot Tabletop campaign! We'll be playing Call of Cthulhu 6th edition. The system makes use of H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu mythos. Dark mysteries and morbid secrets await!


Prerequisites
Familiarity with tabletop games is suggested but not required. No prior knowledge of the Cthulhu mythos or the Call of Cthulhu system necessary.

X10445: Indie RPGs Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Shain Neumeier

Many people have heard of Dungeons & Dragons, but there are a lot of equally amazing tabletop games out there -- and some only take a few hours to learn and play. Come to this session, and we'll learn to play one. I will be bringing Microscope (2-4 players), Durance (3-5 players), and Archipelago (small group, probably 3-5 people), and the group will vote on which one they want to play. All three involve a lot of participation by the group in playing as far as worldbuilding and character creation.

If more people show up than can play a single game, I will be glad to lend one of the other books to a different group to play and help as needed to figure out the rules of the game.


Prerequisites
None

X10393: Avant Garde
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Lane Gunderman

“Art is what you can get away with.” --Andy Warhol

This is not a class. This is an anti-class.

In this not class, we'll discuss, observe, and perhaps even practice aspects of the avant garde art movement. Be prepared for the Aardvark Gourd.


Prerequisites
None.

X10403: Punology Full!
Difficulty: *

Finding it hard to FUNCTION in the afterMATH of your other classes? Worrying about your MARX on that Soviet History paper you kept STALIN since you couldn't find the CLASS? Wishing you'd already PAST that class? Want to keep your geography grade above SEA LEVEL? Lose your NOTES for music theory?
If you do choose to take our class, make sure you're PUNctual.
If we didn't convince you to take this class, then I guess no pun in ten did.

X10364: Mao!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Aofei Liu, Joanna Sands

Learn how to play Mao! (It's a card game.) When we say you have to learn how to play the game, we really mean you have to learn it. We won't be giving you any of the rules! For the full experience of Mao, please don't go and search up the rules before coming to class. That just spoils the fun. Don't worry though; at the end you'll take back a sheet containing the basic rules, so even if you haven't figured out the rules by then, you'll know how to play the game.


Prerequisites
Be fine with the idea of being "punished" (in the game) for a mistake you didn't know you were making.

X10287: Psychology of Shopping
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

Have you ever wondered why cell phone cases are so expensive?

Or why there are about three or four different Amazon Kindle models or Kindle Fire models you can buy? Why not just one? Why not 10?

Or why adults love Apple?

In this class we'll go over common psychological mechanisms that companies use to make their products more appealing and compelling. We'll also discuss, if we have extra time, ways to counteract some of these mechanisms.

X10326: Hair Wrapping
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Francesca Majluf

Learn how to do this beautiful hair decoration that can last for weeks!

X10468: Talking Hands!: An Introduction to American Sign Language
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Renee Otto

An introductory workshop on the basics of American Sign Language. You will leave the course with an understanding of and an ability to communicate the following: finger spelling; numbers 0-10; basic sentence structure/grammar; introductory phrases; Deaf Culture; and expression.
This class is intended for beginners who are new to or have introductory exposure to sign language, but all levels are welcome to come!

X10371: Intro to K-pop Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Margaret Sands

Korean Pop is a widely popular genre. Come learn about what makes it so special.


Prerequisites
Nothing. Please come even if you don't know what kpop is.

X10350: LaTeX
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ahaan Rungta

Want to write your math equations without using Word? Good idea. In this class, we will talk about the basics of LaTeX, a high-quality typesetting system which is used for many math and science documents and research papers.


Prerequisites
Typing!

X10344: Extemporaneous 5-minute Classes on Absolutely Anything

Ever wondered about how to properly handle a crocodile? Ever wanted to know how to spot a split infinitive? Now's your chance to find out ALL the answers! Give us a title, we'll teach a 5-minute class on the topic! The weirder the topic, the more you'll get to see us embarrass ourselves as we make up answers on the spot. Bring your silliest, awesome-est, ludicrous-est ideas!

X10306: Knitting for Beginners Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Lauren Bustamante

Learn how to knit so you can make cute scarves, hats, and mug cozies to keep your friends and family warm for the winter!

X10470: Have Your Vegan Cupcake And Decorate It Too!!! Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Renee Otto

This course needs all three of its exclamation points, its just that exciting and delicious. I will supply the cupcakes and guide you through decorating techniques!
Cupcake bakeshops are a bit of a trend right now, but why buy an overpriced cupcake that has been sitting in a window all day when you can decorate your own?
I will bake and bring two flavors of vegan cupcakes, then guide you through the process of frosting them with delicious vegan buttercream using a variety of introductory piping tools and techniques!
You don't need to be vegan to appreciate well baked and decorated cupcakes.

**If you have any food allergies or dietary restrictions (peanut, gluten free, kosher, ect.) please make Spark or me aware of them prior to this course. Most allergies can be accommodated :D**

X10398: Basic Leadership
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Alexis Oriole

Come learn about leadership and team-building by doing games and activities!


Prerequisites
none

X10296: CEO Flight Simulator
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

A multiplayer simulation in which participants seek to maximize their company's net worth as they compete against each other while dealing with variations in resource supply. Participants buy, sell, and build equipment, decide where to operate, and negotiate with one another. Policy options the instructor may use to introduce complexity include auctions, permits, and quotas. Format will consist of a 80-minute simulation followed by a 30-minute debrief. Students will be divided into groups for this exercise.


Prerequisites
Instructor will send out ~30-minute video that explains the user interface before the class.

X10318: It’s a Conspiracy! From Aliens to the XYZ Affair
Difficulty: *

“Did you hear that?”
“No, what?”
“That sound, like an authority figure trying to tell me what to do.”
“Are you okay?”
“How can I be okay when the world is conspiring against me!?”
Have you ever felt like you were being lied to or cheated by the government? Have you been called crazy by your friends for sharing with them your entirely valid concerns? Do you not believe in any conspiracy theories but find them interesting/thought-provoking/hilarious? Then this is the class for you! We will go over a bunch of mainstream (and far off the mainstream) conspiracy theories, but be mindful; not all the theories we’ll talk about are real, so listen carefully to pick out the internet favorites from the ones we just made up! We will also bring food, because, as we all know, handing out free food is the best way to make people listen to you (just add a circus and it will be like Ancient Rome). So come learn what the people screaming on the streets are all about! Or maybe we’ll just drain your souls and use your bodies as puppets to serve our own nefarious purposes -- you really can’t be sure.

X10335: Superheroes 101
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Michael Winston

Don't know the difference between Dr. Doom and Doomsday? Can't understand why the X-men and the Justice League don't team up? This is the class for you. A two hour introduction to the worlds of comic books.

X10402: Steak: Theory and Practice
Difficulty: *

TIred of USDA standard beef? Steer yourself on over and meat your fellow cownnoisseurs! We'll moove from the science of cooking meat to useful tools and techniques for preparing beef. Classes this well done are rare, so it would be a missteak to miss this.


Prerequisites
While you do not need to be able to eat beef to participate, your experience will probably be much better if you could partake of the results.

X10394: Copyrights and Copywrongs Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Megan Belzner

What do you have to be careful of when inventing something new? If you write a book, when are other people allowed to use excerpts from it? Why can't you create a new website and call it 'Google'? The answers to these questions lie in the realm of intellectual property law. In this class, we'll look at how the laws of patents, copyrights, and trademarks play out, both historically and today, through a combination of real cases and interactive simulations.


Prerequisites
It would be helpful to know about the three branches of government and what their general roles are, though we'll review this briefly.

X10343: Introduction to Investing
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Stephenie Zhang

Interested in stocks? Come learn about how to start investing in stocks, from how the stock market works to how to pick which stocks to buy. We'll show you the qualitative and quantitative ways analyze a company, as well as walk you through what a well-researched stock pitch consists of.

X10308: Toki Pona- the language of good Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Elise Michaels

Toki!
Ever wanted to learn another language? Toki Pona is the world's simplest language, with only 120 words. By the end of this class, you'll be able to talk to each other and communicate basic concepts.

X10434: World Changer's Think Tank: Creating Sustainable Community Service Projects Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Emily Pond

World Changer's Think Tank is a workshop that teaches middle school and high school students how to implement and execute effective, result-maximizing service projects within their communities.

X10298: How to Read a Financial Statement
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

After this class, you will be able to: (1) understand balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements; and (2) calculate several simple financial ratios to better understand the performance of a company. Format will consist of a 50-minute lecture on theory followed by a 60-minute group exercise.

X10464: Gender Beyond the Binary
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ryker Reed

Like thinking about gender? Ever felt like male and female don't cover all the possibilities? Come learn all about the Gender Spectrum and all the different identities that a person can have that fall outside the Binary of Female or Male. We will talk about gender identity in society, in science, and in life. Come enjoy a fun discussion and bring your questions! No prior knowledge necessary, just respect and an open mind.

X10299: Negotiation Lab Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Vrajesh Modi

This class will introduce students to the theory and practice of negotiation. Topics covered will include basic terminology and strategies. Format will consist of: (1) a brief lecture on theory; (2) a negotiation exercise/simulation; and (3) debrief. Students will be divided into teams for the simulation.

X10248: Dungeons and Dragons Tabletop RPG Full!
Difficulty: **

You toss aside your bow and draw your sword as the slobbering beast draws closer. You slash at it as it snarls and bears down on you. You step back only to feel the cool stone wall of the cave at your back. You steel yourself and begin chanting. The air around you glows and crackles as you prepare to cast the spell.

Come play a one-shot tabletop campaign! We'll be playing Dungeons and Dragons 5th edition. Fight horrible monsters, explore dungeons and loot the dragons hoard!


Prerequisites
Familiarity with tabletop RPGs is suggested but not required. No prior knowledge of the dungeons and dragons system necessary.

X10409: Spontaneous 5-Minute Classes on Whatever You Want
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Davie Rolnick

You choose the title, we improvise a 5-minute lesson on it! Bring your wackiest topic suggestions, and watch us embarrass ourselves as we teach you about them on the spur of the moment.


Social Studies

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Z10360: Women's History
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Beverly cahyadi

Since March is Women's History month, what better time could there be to learn about some great Women in history? We will be covering a broad time period, including parts of history not typically learnt in School.

EVERYBODY IS WELCOME TO THIS CLASS!

I also anticipate that the class will not take the whole 1:50minutes but between 1 and 1.5 hours.


Prerequisites
Come prepared to talk and write about your favorite woman (or women) roles models!

Z10389: Colors in different languages Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Roan LaPlante

English has a very rich vocabulary of color terms. But some languages, such as the Herero family of languages spoken indigenously in southern central Africa, or a variety of languages spoken indigenously on Papua New Guinea, have very few words to describe color, sometimes having as few as four, three, or two colors.

This course will explore the prevalence of color terms in the world's different languages, and will review anthropological evidence exploring the effect of languages' color terms on cognition.

Z10406: Culture and Languages
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Shahrukh Khan

Ever wonder what family tree your native language belongs to? And what languages share similar characteristics? How culture influences language? Well then this is the class for you. Learn more about sociolinguistics and language ideology, the fields that study the relationship between culture, languages, and society.

Z10441: Everything You Need to Know About Prisons in the U.S.
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Lydia Brown

Where do prisons come from? What are the purposes of prisons? Do they really hold up to those ideals? What is prison privatization? What are mass incarceration and the prison-industrial complex and why should you care? We're fascinated with shows like Oz, Prison Break, and Orange is the New Black, but what do we really know about how prisons work in society, who is imprisoned, and where our system fails?

Come to learn about the history of prisons and incarceration in the United States, how our criminal justice system stacks up against others internationally, and what current pressing issues we are now grappling with as a society. We will talk about the role of incarceration in institutional/structural racism, classism, and ableism (don't worry; we'll discuss those terms!) and the connections between prison abolition work and the Black Lives Matter movement as well as the psychological effects of solitary confinement, legal issues surrounding indigent (public) defense and access to counsel, and the ethics of alternatives to imprisonment.


Prerequisites
An understanding and willingness to engage in some heavy topics especially about violence and anti-Black racism. Class will likely get into detail about slavery, police brutality, and abusive conditions of confinement.

Z10278: The Laudable Leonardo (da Vinci) Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Clio Macrakis

Inventor, painter, scientist, naturalist, engineer, urban planner, anatomist. Leonardo da Vinci did all this and more. Learn about da Vinci's work with everything from optics to organs, flowers to flying machines, and appreciate the genius who studied it all.

Z10415: Now By The Numbers - Or Not
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Julia Arnous

The "Harper's Index" comes out monthly - it's a famous list of stats that arguably have some cultural or political significance. We will study the numbers from a recent Harper's Index - and talk politics, current events, and international affairs. What do these figures mean? How are they significant, and what are their implications? Should we take them with a big grain of salt? Come discover and debate some of today's hot topics and strange facts.

Z10448: How 2 Be Kool like Trump ;)
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Virup Gubba, Ruth Park

Learn to negotiate through fun simulations and understanding the science behind it all!! Mind boggling studies included.


Prerequisites
Bring your brain & your smiles (:

Z10384: Comparative Phonology: Strange Sounds of the World's Languages Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Roan LaPlante

In this course we will go over the theory, anatomy, and orthography (International Phonetic Alphabet) of different speech sounds. English is a common reference point in our discussion; we will examine the ways in which the sound systems of other languages of the world are different from English.

Depending on interest and time we will also talk about differences in regional dialects of English.

This is a very interactive course, with an emphasis on speech production of unfamiliar sounds.


Prerequisites
A willingness to try to vocalize unfamiliar sounds.

Z10493: Introduction to Microeconomics Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jeyshri Sundaram

What is Supply and Demand? Why do we consume or produce a product? Curious as to why things are cheaper in Wall Mart than your local store? We will be learning about the laws of demand and supply and looking at simple graphs

Z10484: Preference and Policy Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Kraft

Do legislators vote for what they want, what their constituents want, what they think their constituents want, what their constituents should want, what will be best for the country, what will be best for their constituents, or for something else entirely? What should they vote for? How should they know what to vote for?

In this class, we'll talk about possible answers to these questions, about research on what the members of the American congress actually do. We'll also talk about how we can use the methods of political science to make these questions precise and answer them in a scientific way.


Prerequisites
You should know what the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate are.

Z10432: A Brief Introduction to Disability Rights Activism (and Theory on the Side)
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Lydia Brown

What is disability? Who counts as disabled? How do we -- or should we or can we -- think about disability and bodily/mental difference in society? Whose bodies or brains are considered "healthy" or "normal" and whose are considered "sick," "disordered," or "abnormal" -- and why?

In this course, we will explore the concept of different types of disability -- cognitive, physical, mental, sensory, and otherwise. We will grapple with difficult, complicated questions as we move from "unsightly beggars" and "mental defectives" to "sideshow freaks" and "telethon cripples," and all the way to today's radical disability justice activism and calls for crip culture. We'll discuss stigma and shame, as well as disability pride and empowerment. We'll cover topics as diverse as reproductive justice, white supremacy, Calvinist moral principles, bioethics, labor rights, mass incarceration, and sexual violence. You will learn about the longest occupation of a federal building in U.S. protest history, cultural communities you may have never known existed (Deaf culture, Autistic culture, Mad pride, Neuroqueer movement, etc.), and the faces of modern-day eugenics.

We will question societal expectations of "normal" and "healthy" bodies and minds, and examine the myriad possibilities for radically reconceptualizing disabled experiences as part of the human experience. We will discuss connections between disability activism and movements for labor justice, fat acceptance, feminism, queer and trans liberation, and racial justice. Don't worry if you don't know much -- this course is meant as an introduction!

By the end of the course, you won't be an expert on disability studies or the disability rights movement or disability cultural activism. You will, however, have both a broader and deeper understanding of an incredibly diverse and dynamic social justice movement, as well as the tools to more carefully analyze and respond to public discourse and popular ideas about disability and bodily/mental difference.

This course was originally taught in Summer HSSP 2015, so you will get a whole summer's worth of info crammed into just two hours! (If you took this class over the summer, you should NOT sign up for this class.)


Prerequisites
An understanding and willingness to engage in some heavy topics especially about violence. I provide content notes/trigger warnings in advance of material likely to be particularly disturbing so students can make informed choices.

Z10373: Let's talk about Watergate Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Marcus Boorstin

Let's talk about Watergate - what actually happened (people broke into DNC headquarters), what people think happened (Rose Mary Woods erased some tapes?), and what probably didn't happen (aliens did everything?). Bring questions and conspiracy theories!

Z10391: Introduction to Game Theory
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lane Gunderman

Whenever you play a game you try to predict what the other players will do. In this class we will examine some very simple games and talk about the optimal strategy when playing with certain kind of players. The course will begin with playing a game, then talking about what expectations we have, then taking a more abstract approach to the question. We will finish by attempting to explain why people play in certain ways for games they know they'll play with that player again.


Prerequisites
Some familiarity with algebra would be nice, but I'll mostly just be pushing some variables around, so you won't need to have a strong grasp of algebra.

Z10458: How to be Less Wrong
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Shi Ke Xue

Are you deeply invested in politics? Do you play Facebook games? Do you really know why you like the things you do?

In actuality, there are a lot of cognitive biases at play in every case that tint our reasoning. For various reasons, human psychology leads us to reach conclusions which are wrong and usually unnoticed. We will explore common biases which affect what we believe, how we make decisions, and how we behave. When it comes to thinking about ourselves, we can learn to be less wrong.


Prerequisites
None.

Z10271: Point A to Point B: Urban Transportation Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Clio Macrakis

Do you ever get tired of waiting for the bus? Do you rely on a car because there's no public transportation near your home? Explore the way that cities are built for certain kinds of transportation, and best urban planners by designing a car-free, sustainable city!

Z10377: How to Get What You Want (Psychological Biases)
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Bryce Hwang, Jenny Li

Want to learn how to manipulate your friends into doing what you want? Do you want to find out how you're being tricked by everything on TV? Come for some cookies and mind-blowing psychology!